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Autism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Autism. Definition. A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the way a person communicates and relates to people around them. Triad of impairments in social interaction, social communication and imagination. . Autism Spectrum Disorder. Classic Autism Asperger Syndrome

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Autism

    2. Definition • A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the way a person communicates and relates to people around them. • Triad of impairments in social interaction, social communication and imagination.

    3. Autism Spectrum Disorder • Classic Autism • Asperger Syndrome generally thought to be at the milder end of this spectrum. • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder typically occurs later than autism and involves a more dramatic loss of skills. • Rett Syndrome have increasing problems with movement, coordination and communication that may affect their ability to use their hands, communicate and walk. • Pervasive Developmental Disorder individuals with this disorder share same signs and symptoms of autism but do not meet all of the criteria for diagnosis

    4. Interesting Facts • Children grown up isolated from humans said to be raised by the animals in the woods (Heflin, L.J and Alaimo, D.(2007) • There is a story about Peter aged 12 who never learns to speak even when he was given advantage. However he loves music and would hum tunes he heard.

    5. Causes • may be attributed to a metabolic condition, viral bacterial infection or genetic basis • result of variation in conditions that occur before, during or after birth may affect brain development • imbalance of certain chemicals in the brain e.g. exposure to some toxins or chemicals during pregnancy could affect the child

    6. Characteristics • Speech Development • Delayed • Absent • Present and later disappears • Social Interaction • Practices ego-centric play • Prefers isolation • Avoids eye-contact Skills Strengths: Drawing, music, mathematics, remembering data Weaknesses: Unable to understand content and concepts like time and weather Behavioural Problems Shows signs of hyperactivity or the opposite Obsessive interest in a particular object or event May turn aggressive and throw tantrum Stereotyped behaviours (e.g. flapping his/her hands, lining up toys) • Sensory Differences • Reacts to noises, lighting, temperatures, touch, as well as certain tastes and smells

    7. Prevalence • With an estimated of 4 million people living in Singapore, about 24,000 individuals are diagnosed with autism • 5,472 of them are children below the age of 19 years • Approximately 216 new cases of children diagnosed with autism annually Source: Autism Resource Centre (Singapore), 2012

    8. Assessment • INTERVENTION IN SINGAPORE • Early Detection • Occurs in an "ad-hoc" manner in healthcare facilities preschools / kindergartens. • medical checkups / vaccinations / observation in schools. • Results in delayed detection of developmental disabilities thus affect the time a child starts receiving intervention. • Use of Health Booklet • Source: MCYS Chapter 2 Early Intervention • indicates a screening gap between 18 months and 3 years which is crucial in a child's developmental years.

    9. Assessment Admission Process to Intervention Programmes • Example 1, WeCan EIP (Autism Resource Centre Singapore): • Referral > Initial Screening > Placement • Example 2, Centre for Enabled Living (CEL): • Referral > Case Manager > Designated or preferred EIPIC centre

    10. Assessment Intervention programmes for children with autism (Singapore) • Autism Resource Centre (WeCan Early Intervention Programme) Source: Criteria: -Children 18 months to 6 years - Priority for Singapore Citizens Intervention Model: - Emphasise on work habits, self-regulation, social and communication skills. - Individualised Educational Plan (IEP) with specific goal for every child. - Aims to improve the abilities to learn and chances for improved future.

    11. Assessment • Eden Children's Centre Source: Criteria: Children 2 years to 6 years old Singapore Citizen / Permanent Resident Intervention Model: - "mixture of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) strategies and Structured Teaching (TEACCH) principles" (Autism Association Singapore, 2009) - IEP based on Needs Assessment and an Occupational Therapy Assessment - Emphasise on Language, Social, Behavioural, Cognitive, Adaptive Living and Motor Skills

    12. Assessment • Autism Behavioural Intervention Center for Children (BICC) Criteria - 3 to 8 years Intervention Model: - Analysis Behaviour Methods - Diagnostic report - Psychological Assessment - Screening - Therapy - Reinforce positive behaviours, expressive language and functional skills Source:

    13. Technologies • Electronic devices e.g. iPad, iPhone • Learning aids e.g. pencil grips, visual timers • and visual schedules • Lack of Assistive Technology for children with ASD in Singapore • WHY? • More Emphasis Placed on Physically Disabled • Lack of AT Suppliers • Lack of Collaboration between MOE & MCYS

    14. Services

    15. Services (continued)

    16. Local Service Providers • Autism Association of Singapore • Autism Resource Centre • Autism Partnership • Learn Different • Metacognition Learning and Development • Centre

    17. Services • Edusave Pupils Fund • Edusave Grants • Integrated Child Care Programme • (ICCP) • School-based Achievement Awards for Special Education • Schools (SAASPED)

    18. Issues • Social emotional Issues • Low self-esteem • Low performance level • Constant need of emotional support • Education • A non-inclusive learning environment • Inexperienced teaching staff • Examinations at Mainstream level • Social Acceptance in Mainstream Schools • Lack of awareness and understanding for autism • among school staff or society • Difficulties in establishing friendships due to lack of • communication skills and obsessive behaviours

    19. Challenges • Inability in Expressing Themselves • Inadequate opportunities to practise their communication skills • Abnormal social interaction style • Lack of Focus & Short Attention Span • Difficulty in sitting down for long period • of time • Self-regulatory movements: Moving about in • class or playing with things • Highly attuned to slight distractions in the • environment e.g. lights, noise • Pays little attention to topics/conversations • that are not of his/her interests

    20. Useful Links For Local Service Providers For Speech Therapies & Professionals For Devices & Technology

    21. Summary • Children with autism need support to function as other typically developing children in turn affect their future. • Important to detect early, start intervention early and provide the support for needs of children with autism. • Use of technologies/assistive devices facilitates the learning. • There are efforts by government, special schools and intervention programme. • However, more efforts need to be implemented to help the cost of EI (Early Intervention) programmes. • To move towards inclusion in mainstream schools, training of professionals or teachers is important. • Increase awareness on autism amongst society, school staff.

    22. References Autism Association (Singapore). (2009). Retrieved July 21, 2012, from Autism Resource Centre (Singapore). (2012). Retrieved July 20, 2012, from Heflin, L.J and Alaimo, D.(2007). Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effective Instructional Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ. : Pearson Kessick, R.(2009). Autism and diet: What you need to know. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Healing Thresholds (2012). Connecting community and science to heal autism. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from Shanab, N. (2010). Everyday life with autism: Simple tips for parents & educators. Visual Timer. Retrieved July 20, 2012 from

    23. References • Heflin, L.J and Alaimo, D.(2007). Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effective Instructional Practices. Upper Saddle River, NJ. : Pearson • Mesibov, G.B., Adams, L.W., & Klinger, L.G. (1997). Autism: Understanding the disorder. New York: Plenum Press. • Tinsnips. (2009). Common characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from • Autism Resource Centre (Singapore). (2006/2007) Retrieved July 20, 2012 from • MCYS (2012). Retrieved July 20, 2012 from • MCYS (2012). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from (Author: MCYS Year: 2012) • Autism Community (2012). Retrieved on July 21, 2012 from • Autism Speaks (2012). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from • MCYS (10 March 2012). Retrieved July 21, 2012 from ( • Lim, L. and Quah, M. (2004). Educating learners with diverse abilities. • • Ministry of Education (Singapore) (2012). Retrieved 21 July, 2012 from