Workshop on Mentoring Faculty September 25, 2013 3:00-5:15 Faculty Senate Chambers Sponsored by the Office of the Provost and the Office for Institutional Equity and Diversity
Agenda • Introductions • Overview of best practices and research on mentoring • Goals and expectations for mentoring • Practical matters: Schedule, frontloading, critical incidents, constructive feedback • Dysfunctional behaviors • Break • Stressors for women and underrepresented faculty • Mentoring for interdisciplinary faculty • Scenarios
Who is Mentor? • In Homer’s Odyssey, Mentor was teacher and guide to Telemachus, Odysseus’ son, while Odysseus returned from Trojan war. • Mentor illustrates a male guiding another male, but Mentor had his own guide, Athena, goddess of wisdom (who took Mentor’s form and served as companion and adviser to Telemachus). • Would the relationship have been different if Athena had advised a young female or revealed her gender to her young male companion? • The issue of gender in mentoring issues continues. (See COACHE survey results--handout)
Research Findings • Faculty members with mentors report “more career success and socio-emotional support than faculty members without one.” (Sorcinelli and Yun, 2004) • “Mentoring constellations” are positively associated with career and job satisfaction; individuals with more than one mentor seem to have greater career benefits. (van Emmerik in Sorcinelli and Yun, 2004) • Participants in a 2-day workshop connecting junior and senior women faculty had significant gains in total number of publications, total number of publications in top-tier journals, and total number of federal grants, compared to non-participants with similar range of abilities (American Economics Association Committee on the Status of Women; Inside Higher Education, 1/04/2010)
Traditional Mentoring: Hierarchical Relationship with Two Types of Functions • Career Functions • Coaching • Sponsorship • Protection • Exposure and viability • Challenging assignments • Psychosocial Functions • Role modeling • Acceptance and confirmation • Counseling • Friendship (Duff, 1999)
Current Models: Mentoring Networks • Not a “top-down, one-to-one relationship in which an experienced faculty member guides and supports a new or early-career faculty member… mentoring is best undertaken by a number of faculty members, rather than one individual.” • “Multi-mentor model”: more realistic in “an increasingly complex and changing academic environment” • “Networking model” vs “grooming model” (Sorcinelli and Yun, 2004)
Types of Mentors in Potential“Mentoring Constellation” • Lead, “at-large” mentor (traditional) • Informal mentor(s) • Responsibility-related mentors (research, teaching, service) • Project-oriented mentor(s) • Group mentoring • Peer mentoring • Groups for writing support, etc. • External mentors (Moody, 2010)
Developing Mentoring Programs • In most departments mentoring needs to be more deliberate and intentional whether there is a formal structure or not (Bensimon, Ward and Sanders, 2000). • Department head and senior faculty should determine purpose(s) and structure, in conjunction with junior faculty and using “best practices” from literature. • Both mentors and “protegés/mentees” require preparation if not training.
Criteria for Good Mentoring Pairs(or Groups) • Compatibility in career goals • Commonalities in personal circumstances and interests (e.g., family status, personal interests and activities) • Productivity in common areas • New pairings (no previous relationship) • Similar time commitments (Bensimon et al)
Characteristics of Good Mentors • Productive in teaching, research and institutional citizenship • Familiar with department, college and campus • Positive about their positions • Politically aware • Understanding of challenges for new faculty • Supportive and willing to reach out to new faculty • Good listeners (Bensimon et al)
Goals for the Mentoring Relationship UC San Diego Faculty Mentoring Program Short-term goals • Familiarization with the campus and its environment • Networking—introduction to colleagues, identification of other possible mentors. • Developing awareness—help new faculty understand policies and procedures that are relevant to the new faculty member’s work. • Constructive criticism and encouragement, compliments on achievements. • Helping to sort out priorities—budgeting time, balancing research, teaching, and service. Long-term goals • Developing visibility and prominence within the profession. • Achieving career advancement.
Discussion • What kind of mentoring program does your department provide for new faculty? • How are mentors identified? • How do mentors and new faculty prepare for the mentoring experience? • How do mentors function beyond one-on-one interaction with new faculty member? (e.g., participation in annual review, peer review of teaching, etc.) • Ideas for making your mentoring program more effective?
Bare-Bones Timeline: Mentoring New Faculty • First two weeks: Review orientation info, answer questions • Midway through first semester: answer questions about research, tenure process, balance of teaching, research, service. Develop writing and research goals. • Second semester: touch base re progress with research and teaching • End of first year: develop teaching and research goals for summer and year 2 (annual review, if head) • Start of year 2: assess progress, review plans for research, conferences, manuscripts, grants • End of each subsequent year: develop plans, assess progress (Bensimon et al 2000)
Front Loading – Start Early Front loading brings dividends for the future. Do not wait for a problem before meeting with mentee. The mentor should initiate the meetings. Ideas for first meeting: • Get acquainted, definitions and expectations of mentoring • Importance of confidentiality • Decide on ground rules for the mentoring relationships • Schedule next few meetings – include other faculty. Meet at least monthly to develop the relationship • Encourage mentee to cultivate other mentors, get second opinions • Listen and ask questions
What to Include in Ground Rules • How often to meet? Open door? Time constraints? • Multiple mentors and sources of information • What do we each expect to get from/provide to this relationship? – review manuscripts? Collaborate? Moral support? • How does mentoring feed into or intersect department’s annual review, SME, and tenure/promotion processes? • How to handle disagreements • Confidentiality • Your thoughts?
Critical Incidents • From “Keeping Our Faculty of Color Symposium”: Faculty decide in the first 90 days if they will stay at an institution. • Review list of typical stressors for new faculty. Brainstorm ways to mitigate them • Encourage mentee to talk about both positive and negative aspects of faculty life • If mentee encounters difficulties or critical incidents • Listen. • Do not dismiss, deny, or rationalize them. • Do not try to solve them, but know the appropriate campus resources. (e.g., HR workshop on coaching, OIED harassment and discrimination reporting, OFD resources, Asst and Assoc Professors’ Communities)
Constructive Feedback • Work from a shared baseline – before you begin, review the mentee’s goals for the day • Frame questions in terms of your own lack of understanding. Direct questions or criticism to the work, not the mentee • Avoid asking questions with a demeaning tone • Suggest other resources and people, brainstorm about how to improve the work • Elicit discussion about the approach – ask what are the advantages and disadvantages • If the mentee isn’t doing all he/she is responsible for, point out the problem, help develop skills
Advancing your Mentee’s Career • Suggest conferences, grant opportunities, professional development opportunities, etc. • Collaborate on a research or teaching project • Introduce your mentee to other faculty • Provide constructive feedback on manuscripts, grant proposals, teaching • Nominate mentee for awards or for invited presentations or panels
Dysfunctional Behaviors – How to Undercut the Relationship • Gossip • Fail to protect confidential information • Violate the ground rules you set up • Do not proactively set meetings and contact mentee, wait for mentee to contact you. • Examples?
Mentoring Women and Underrepresented Minorities Effective mentors for women faculty, faculty of color, and interdisciplinary faculty need to balance advice for surviving in the current system with a commitment to changing the institution
Challenges for Women and Underrepresented Minorities • Overt Sexism and Racism • Unconscious Bias • “Cultural Taxation” • “Women’s Work” • Work/Life Integration
Strategies for Mentoring Women and Underrepresented Minorities • Advocate Cultural Change: Challenge Overt Sexism and Racism and Confront Unconscious Bias • Be a Champion: Protect Faculty from Excessive Service Responsibilities • Assist Faculty in Developing a Plan of Work that Balances Research, Teaching and Service • Act as a Role Model with Respect to Work/Life Integration
Challenges for Interdisciplinary Faculty • “Multiple Fields-One Body” Problem • Overwork • Possible Resentment of Departmental Colleagues • Disciplinary Bias against Interdisciplinary Work
Strategies for Mentoring Interdisciplinary Faculty • Advocate Interdisciplinary Assessment/Evaluation • Champion New Work and New Ideas • Assist Faculty Member in Promoting their Work, through Presentations, Informal Discussions, etc. • Guide in Developing a Plan of Work
Scenarios Two scenarios – choose one to discuss in small group • New faculty member was a controversial choice due to area of research • Minority faculty member was told by another faculty member in a meeting “You’re our politically correct hire. You’re qualified to teach only race-related courses. Yes?” Form several groups of three people for each scenario.
Scenarios In small groups discuss • What did they do well at individual or dept level? • What didn’t go so well? • What remedies can you suggest? • If you were the mentor how would you help the mentee? • Are there useful self-help strategies for the mentee? Large group discussion
References • Bensimon, Estela M., Ward, Kelly, and Sanders, Karla. (2000) The Department Chair’s Role in Developing New Faculty into Teachers and Scholars. Bolton MA: Anker Publishing. Chapter 10, “Creating Mentoring Relationships and Fostering Collegiality” • Duff, Carolyn S. (1999) Learning from Other Women: How to Benefit from the Knowledge, Wisdom and Experience of Female Mentors. American Management Association • Jaschik, Scott. “Proof that Mentoring Matters.” Inside Higher Ed (January 4, 2010). • Moody, JoAnn. (2010) Mentoring Early-Stage Faculty at Medical, Law and Business Schools and Colleges and Universities. San Diego: JoAnn Moody. • Sorcinelli, Mary Deane, and Jung Yun. “From Mentor to Mentoring Networks: Mentoring in the New Academy.” Change, Nov/Dec 2007, 58-61.