Daily Grammar Practice A Grammar Program That Makes Sense
Why Grammar? • Colleges and technical schools say that students aren’t prepared for the demands of academic writing.
Ezarik, M. (2003). Survey: K-12, higher ed grammar disconnect. (CurriculumUpdate: The latest developments in math, science, language arts and social studies). DistrictAdministration, 39(7), 46.
Why Grammar? • Business leaders complain that employees can’t write grammatically correct documents. • We expect students to edit for grammatical and mechanical errors, but they can’t apply what they don’t understand.
Why Grammar? • In order to help students write better and write correctly, we must all share a common lingo, and that lingo is grammar.
lie rise sit intransitive
Why Grammar? • A student who understands the nuts and bolts of a language can use that language more effectively. • Students need to know grammar concepts for standardized tests such as exit exams and the SAT.
George Hillocks and Michael Smith (1991) argue that “the teaching of school grammar has little or no effect on students” and that grammar instruction wastes valuable time that could be better spent on writing instruction. Hillocks, G., Jr., & Smith, M. W. (1991). Grammar and usage. In J. Flood, J. M. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (591-603). New York: Macmillan.
Why Daily Grammar Practice? • Works like a daily grammar vitamin
The Vitamin Analogy • Learning through grammar unit: taking a whole bottle of vitamins at once. • Learning grammar in context or through daily correct-a-sentence: taking random vitamins at random times but not getting a multi-vitamin every day. • Learning through whole language: eating vegetables and hoping you get what you need.
The Vitamin Analogy • Learning grammar by trying to make it “fun”: eating candy • Learning grammar through DGP: getting a good multi-vitamin every day
Why Daily Grammar Practice? • Is more effective than other daily programs • Is effective at every grade level • Is effective for every ability level • Is effective for English Language Learners
Research on the teaching of grammar to students learning a second language suggests that grammar “provides rules and general guidance that facilitate better understanding of the structures of the target language” (Gao, 2001). Gao, C. Z. (2001). Second language learning and the teaching of grammar. Education, 122(2), 326-336.
Why Daily Grammar Practice? • Is easy to incorporate into curriculum • Takes less time than traditional, less effective methods
Rei Noguchi (1991) states that teachers should “make more time available for other writing activities by making less grammar do more.” Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the teaching of writing: Limits and possibilities. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Why Daily Grammar Practice? • Forces grammar concepts into long-term memory.
In order to apply skills that they have learned, students need to know the skills on a subconscious level. To achieve this understanding, they “must engage in practice that gradually becomes distributed, as opposed to massed” (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Why Daily Grammar Practice? • Enables learners to apply grammar concepts to their writing • Follows a logical progression at each grade level and from first grade through college • Breaks concepts into small parts while helping learners to see how all parts work together
Students “struggle to understand concepts in isolation, to learn parts without seeing wholes” (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). Brooks, J. G., & Brooks, M. G. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Why Daily Grammar Practice? • Eliminates the need for tedious grammar exercises • Complements all types of writing instruction
The DGP Process • Monday: Identify parts of speech
The DGP Process • Monday: Identify parts of speech • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions
The DGP Process • Monday: Identify parts of speech • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type
The DGP Process • Monday: Identify parts of speech • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type • Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization
The DGP Process • Monday: Identify parts of speech • Tuesday: Identify sentence functions • Wednesday: Identify clauses and sentence type • Thursday: Add punctuation and capitalization • Friday: Diagram the sentence
Week 27 Monday
1 nom pron av past rel pron art n N hv we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it av past 1 nom pron av/past prep N cc adv 3 obj pron art n prep
Week 27 Tuesday
s v t do app s we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it v i op s v t ( ) adv pp do op ( ) adj pp
Week 27 Wednesday
ind adj dep [ we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it ] [ ] [ ind ] cd-cx declarative
Week 27 Thursday
W we read the novel the giver which was written by lois lowry and then we wrote an essay about it T G ________ , L L , .
Week 27 Friday
We (The Giver) read novel the which was written and by Lois Lowry we wrote essay an then about it
The DGP Process (Grade 2) • Identify nouns and pronouns • Identify adjectives and interjections • Identify subjects and verbs • Identify sentence purpose • Add punctuation and capitalization
Week 1 Monday
P P jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
Week 1 Tuesday
jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
Week 1 Wednesday
A jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike
Week 1 Thursday
jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike dec
Week 1 Friday
’ J jimmy and i saw jeffs new bike I J .