Adventure Education. Wilderness First Aid Basics. Scene Size Up. Stop and evaluate any dangers to; Rescuers Bystanders Patient Establish and follow the personal safety and disease transmission guidelines to maintain proper safety precautions = Gloves & Mask
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Wilderness First Aid
Stop and evaluate any dangers to;
Establish and follow the personal safety and disease transmission guidelines to maintain proper safety precautions = Gloves & Mask
Determine Mechanism of Injury (MOI)
Perform an initial assessment. This is a quick initial assessment for life threatening problems in the body’s respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems. Determine number of patients and level of responsiveness. Remember the steps by thinking ABCDE.
A = airway management – blocked airway can lead to death, check for response, if necessary open the airway.
B = breathing – look listen and feel for air moving, lack of air can lead to cardiac arrest.
C = circulation – signs of circulation (coughing, movement, normal breathing), assess for bleeding, and then assess for control.
D = disability – is the person conscious, assess level, reactive pain, check movement.
E = environment and exposure – protect from the elements (heat, cold, rain).
Once you have done the initial assessment and identified life threatening problems, you can then perform a secondary assessment to help determine what is wrong and the need for immediate attention. Head to toe exam (look, ask, feel). Vital Signs most vital sign is level of consciousness. Simple History.
A – Alert [4,3,2 or 1]
V – Verbally responsive
P – Painfully responsive
U - Unresponsive
S – Subject – Age, gender, chief complaint, MOI / History of Present illness.
O – Objective – How they were found and findings from exam. (continued)
A – Assessment – problem list.
P – Plan – for each problem on assessment list and evacuation plan.
A – Anticipated Problems
Vital Signs – time taken
Level of Consciousness (LOC)
Heart rate, rhythm & Quality (HR)
Respiratory Rate, Ease & Depth (RR)
Skin Color, Temp. & Moisture (SCTM)
S.A.M.P.L.E. – Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Past Relevant History, Last Oral Intake, & Events Leading to Incident
When did it begin?
What brought it on?
What does it feel like?
Where is it located?
Does it go anywhere?
Has this happened before?
Does anything make it feel better?
How bad is it on a scale of 1-10?
The kit should contain the items necessary to provide urgent care. A well-stocked kit should be kept in your home, school, and vehicle. It should be packed with your survival kit when you camp, hike or are in remote areas. Assemble the kit to support the proposed trip.
Selectivity is key.
Hikers, Whitewater Rafting, Climbing
It may be inappropriate to include medications and equipment that no member of the group has the knowledge or experience to use safely.
Considerations should include;
Destination, Length of trip, Time for Evacuation, Size of party, Bulk, weight, and cost.
Bandages and Wound Care
Alcohol Wipes Antibacterial hand gel or wipes
Antibiotic ointment packets Antiseptic cream or wipes
Antiseptic solution (Hydrogen peroxide)
Adhesive Bandages (assorted sizes)
Bandages, Triangular Cold packs (Instant compress)
Cotton balls Elastic roller bandages (3 & 6 inch)
Eye pads Gauze roller bandages (3 inch)
Sterile Gauze Pads (assorted sizes)
Latex style gloves Iodine wipes
Insect sting relief Moleskin
Steri-strips Sterile water
Adhesive tape Vaseline petroleum jelly
Safety pins Scissors
Suction bulb Syringe
Shears (heavy duty scissors with blunt end)
CPR Facemask (breathing barrier)
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Aspirin
Ibuprofen (Motrin / Advil) Antacid tablets (Rolaids / Tums)
Antihistamine (Benadryl) Antifungal cream or ointment
Calamine Lotion Cough suppressant
Decongestant Tablets Hydrocortisone
Motion Sickness tablets (dimenhydrinate)
Any Prescription Medications