Adventure Education Wilderness First Aid Basics
Scene Size Up Stop and evaluate any dangers to; Rescuers Bystanders Patient Establish and follow the personal safety and disease transmission guidelines to maintain proper safety precautions = Gloves & Mask Determine Mechanism of Injury (MOI)
Initial Assessment Perform an initial assessment. This is a quick initial assessment for life threatening problems in the body’s respiratory, circulatory, and nervous systems. Determine number of patients and level of responsiveness. Remember the steps by thinking ABCDE.
ABCDE A = airway management – blocked airway can lead to death, check for response, if necessary open the airway. B = breathing – look listen and feel for air moving, lack of air can lead to cardiac arrest. C = circulation – signs of circulation (coughing, movement, normal breathing), assess for bleeding, and then assess for control. D = disability – is the person conscious, assess level, reactive pain, check movement. E = environment and exposure – protect from the elements (heat, cold, rain).
Focused Exam & History Once you have done the initial assessment and identified life threatening problems, you can then perform a secondary assessment to help determine what is wrong and the need for immediate attention. Head to toe exam (look, ask, feel). Vital Signs most vital sign is level of consciousness. Simple History.
Level of Consciousness (LOC) A – Alert [4,3,2 or 1] V – Verbally responsive P – Painfully responsive U - Unresponsive
S.O.A.P.A. Simple History. S – Subject – Age, gender, chief complaint, MOI / History of Present illness. O – Objective – How they were found and findings from exam. (continued) A – Assessment – problem list. P – Plan – for each problem on assessment list and evacuation plan. A – Anticipated Problems
Objective (cont.) Vital Signs – time taken Level of Consciousness (LOC) Heart rate, rhythm & Quality (HR) Respiratory Rate, Ease & Depth (RR) Skin Color, Temp. & Moisture (SCTM) S.A.M.P.L.E. – Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Past Relevant History, Last Oral Intake, & Events Leading to Incident
Questions to ask When did it begin? What brought it on? What does it feel like? Where is it located? Does it go anywhere? Has this happened before? Does anything make it feel better? How bad is it on a scale of 1-10?
First Aid Kit The kit should contain the items necessary to provide urgent care. A well-stocked kit should be kept in your home, school, and vehicle. It should be packed with your survival kit when you camp, hike or are in remote areas. Assemble the kit to support the proposed trip.
First Aid Kit (cont.) Selectivity is key. Hikers, Whitewater Rafting, Climbing It may be inappropriate to include medications and equipment that no member of the group has the knowledge or experience to use safely. Considerations should include; Destination, Length of trip, Time for Evacuation, Size of party, Bulk, weight, and cost.
First Aid Kit (cont.) Bandages and Wound Care Alcohol Wipes Antibacterial hand gel or wipes Antibiotic ointment packets Antiseptic cream or wipes Antiseptic solution (Hydrogen peroxide) Adhesive Bandages (assorted sizes) Bandages, Triangular Cold packs (Instant compress) Cotton balls Elastic roller bandages (3 & 6 inch) Eye pads Gauze roller bandages (3 inch) Sterile Gauze Pads (assorted sizes) Latex style gloves Iodine wipes Insect sting relief Moleskin Steri-strips Sterile water Adhesive tape Vaseline petroleum jelly
First Aid Kit (cont.) Medical Equipment Eyewash Knife Safety pins Scissors Suction bulb Syringe Thermometer Tweezers Shears (heavy duty scissors with blunt end) CPR Facemask (breathing barrier)
First Aid Kit (cont.) Medications Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Aspirin Ibuprofen (Motrin / Advil) Antacid tablets (Rolaids / Tums) Antihistamine (Benadryl) Antifungal cream or ointment Calamine Lotion Cough suppressant Decongestant Tablets Hydrocortisone Laxative Loperamide(Imodium) Motion Sickness tablets (dimenhydrinate) Any Prescription Medications