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Adventure Education & Self-Concept. By: Crystal Kuehn 12-7-07. Justifications. Does Adventure Education have an affect on a person’s self-concept? Can only certain individuals benefit from Adventure Education? Should Adventure Education be incorporated into the Physical Education curriculum?.

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adventure education self concept

Adventure Education & Self-Concept

By: Crystal Kuehn

12-7-07

justifications
Justifications
  • Does Adventure Education have an affect on a person’s self-concept?
  • Can only certain individuals benefit from Adventure Education?
  • Should Adventure Education be incorporated into the Physical Education curriculum?
definitions
Definitions
  • Self-Esteem: refers to general feelings of self-worth or self-value
  • Self-Efficacy: is belief in one’s capacity to succeed at tasks.
  • Self-Confidence: refers to one’s personal worth and likelihood of succeeding.
slide4
Self-Concept: is the nature and organization of beliefs about one’s self. It is multi-dimensional.
    • Example: people have separate beliefs about their physical, emotional, social aspects of themselves
key pieces of research impact on self concept
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • According to the Fines and Nichols study, due to participation in a 90 minute adventure program for 3 months, all of the individuals increased their feelings of self worth, confidence, physical appearance, feelings of adequacy, as well as the ability to follow through and become physically involved in active recreation.
key pieces of research impact on self concept1
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • According to a study in 1978 by Alan Wright, the results of a 9 week adventure camp program shows that even years later, the specific view of one’s self collected from climbing to a mountain summit remains as a primary stable and permanent self image.

As stated by one participant, “…within me lies a spot of fulfillment which never abandons my psyche. I always can find feelings of confidence and courage from these memories.”

key pieces of research impact on self concept2
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • A study completed by Ebbick and Gibbons found that students who engage in team building activities:
    • Felt happier with themselves as people
    • Rated their athletic skills more highly
    • They thought they looked better
    • Considered themselves to be more popular.
    • Female students also benefited by feeling more positive about their school work and behavioral conduct.
key pieces of research impact on self concept3
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • According to a study done by Robert Vogel, by participating in an outdoor environmental education program participants gained better understanding of themselves and realized that their potential was higher than they thought.
  • The study also showed that the participants experienced a higher level of self-actualization and self-perception of personal change.
key pieces of research impact on self concept4
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • There was a study completed in 1999 by Marcia McKenzie. It involved giving students questionnaires who were enrolled in Adventure course and also students who were not enrolled.
  • The following course components that resulted in the greatest increases is self-concept include:
    • achieving success, challenge, being responsible for oneself, learning new skills, setting and achieving goals, and having leadership responsibilities.
key pieces of research impact on self concept5
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • The following activities within the courses contributed the most to enhancing student’s self-concepts (McKenzie cont.) :
    • backpacking/ mountaineering
    • rock climbing
    • Learning new skills
    • Taking care of others
    • Having leadership responsibilities
    • Group discussions
    • Camp set-up and cooking
    • The final expedition
key pieces of research impact on self concept6
Key Pieces of Research: Impact on Self-Concept
  • Finding from the Graham and Robinson study indicate that an intervention as short as a single workshop may have impact on self-concept.
  • Individuals with high self-concept are more likely to succeed and pursue their goals even when obstacles arise (Gibbons).
slide12
Pros
  • Adventure Education has long lasting effects on students self-concept
  • Self concept can be effected by adventure in many different kinds of individuals:
    • Hearing impaired, at-risk, males, females, young and old…
  • Adventure education allows students to take the skills they learn and apply it to real life situations
    • communication, problem solving…
slide13
Cons
  • Informing other teachers of how to incorporate adventure activities is the biggest obstacle
  • Allowing enough time to complete the adventure curriculum
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Believe in Adventure Education and the benefits that students will gain…such as improved self-concept
  • Be accepting of change and incorporate Adventure Education into your classroom
  • Be and advocate for Adventure Education and get other teachers on board!
references
References
  • Cross, Reid. (Spring 2002).The Effects of an Adventure Education Program on Perceptions of Alienation and Personal Control among At-Risk Adolescents. The Journal of Educational Experience. 25, 247-254.
  • Graham, Louise B., Robinson, Ellyn M. (Fall 2007). Project Adventure and Self Concept of Academically Talented Adolescent Boys. Physical Educator. 64(3), 114-122.
  • Fines, Leanna, Nichols, Doug. (Spring 1995). Self-Concept, Attitude and Satisfaction Benefits of Outdoor Adventure Activities: The Case for Recreational Kayaking. Journal of Leisurability. 22(2).
  • Larson, Bruce. (2007). Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents. Journal of Experiential Education. 29(3), 313-330.
  • Luckner , John, L. (Summer 1989). Altering Locus of Control of Individuals with Hearing Impairments by Outdoor-Adventure Courses. Journal of Rehabilitation. 62-67.
  • Baker, D., Garst, B., Schneider, I. (Spring 2001). Outdoor Adventure Program Participation Impacts on Adolescent Self-Perception. The Journal of Experiential Education. 24(1), 41-49.
  • Wright, Alan N. (1996). The Permanency of a Specific Self-Concept. Educational Resources Information Center. 2-13.
references1
References
  • Vogel, Robert. (1988-89). Adventure Training: It’s Effects on Self-Actualization and Self Perception of Personal Change. Journal of Outdoor Education. 23, 20-29.
  • Ebbeck, Vicki., Gibbons, Sandra. (1998). The Effect of Team Building Program on the Self-Conceptions of Grade 6 and 7 Physical Education Students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 20, 300-310.
  • O’Connell, Timothy S. Multidimensional Self-Concept and Outdoor Adventure Education with Adolescents. Research in Outdoor Education. (6)84-93.
  • McKenzie, Marcia. (2003). Beyond “The Outward Bound Process:” Rethinking Student Learning. The Journal of Experiential Education. 26, 8-23.
  • Glass, J. Scott, Meyers, Jane E. (April 2001). Combining the Old and the New to Help Adolescents: Individual Psychology and Adventure-Based Counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. 23, 104-114.
  • Gibbons, Sandra. (1999). Team Building through Physical Challenges. Connections. 65-70.