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Starting to Body Paragraph. Ms. Torresani. The Body Paragraphs. Each Paragraph in the body section of your paper should include: Topic Sentence Some background information to set up your quotes- not a summary of the book! Signal Phrase which leads into your quote Quote Citation

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the body paragraphs
The Body Paragraphs
  • Each Paragraph in the body section of your paper should include:
    • Topic Sentence
    • Some background information to set up your quotes- not a summary of the book!
    • Signal Phrase which leads into your quote
    • Quote
    • Citation
    • 2-3 sentences of analysis
    • Clincher
the topic sentence
The Topic Sentence
  • Your topic sentence tells the reader what your paragraph will be about.
  • Many people look to the first couple sentences of a paragraph to understand EXACTLY what the paragraph will be about.
your topic sentence should
Your Topic Sentence Should…
  • Support the essays thesis statement (what you are trying to prove)
  • Should develop a single controlling idea of which your paragraph will be about.
but miss t i don t get it
BUT MISS T! I don’t get it.
  • If the thesis statement for my paper is: “Dogs are the worst animals on the planet.” and my first paragraph will be about how they smell bad, what should my topic sentence be?
  • Dogs smell bad and this is one reason why they are the worst animals on the planet. –NO!!!!! This is repetitive of your thesis statement. SO how can we say this in a different way?
  • The foul odor produced by dogs can lead to negative feelings about the animals themselves.
leading into your quote signal phrase
Leading into your quote (Signal phrase)
  • Incorporate your quote into your essay by using a signal phrase. NO QUOTE DUMPING!
  • Remember, a signal phrase is supposed to prepare readers for a quotation.
  • There is a list of verbs on page 114 on your MLA book to help you.
    • Shylock states,
    • Shylock admits,
    • Shylock claims,
quotes quotes quotes
Quotes! Quotes! Quotes!
  • As you choose quotations for a literary analysis, remember the purpose of quoting.
  • Your paper develops an argument about what the author of the text is doing--how the text "works.“
  • You use quotations to support this argument; that is, you select, present, and discuss material from the text specifically to "prove" your point--to make your case--in much the same way a lawyer brings evidence before a jury.
quoting shakespeare
Quoting Shakespeare
  • For a quote of less than 5 lines, you would include the quote as normal in your paper with quotation marks. You must put a / wherever there is a break in a line. The act, scene and line number come at the end in your citation. A comma comes after your signal phrase.
example of short quote
  • Shylock says, “I’ll have my bond;I will not hear thee speak./I’ll have my bond, and therefore speak no more” (3.3.12-13).
  • Lennie says, “Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family” (Steinbeck 21).
citing your quote
Citing your Quote
  • Make sure that you are citing your quote correctly!
    • “quote” (author page number).
    • Long quotes (longer than 50 words) are indented.
    • VERB TENSE- make sure you maintain a consistent PRESENT tense throughout your paper!
long quote format
Long Quote Format
  • For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose:
    • place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks.
    • Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
long quote example shakespeare
Long quote example: Shakespeare

Solanio says of Shylock’s reaction to losing his daughter:

‘My daughter! O my ducats! O my daughter!

Flend with a Christian! O my Christian ducats!

Justice! The law! My ducats, and my daughter!

A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats,

Of double ducats, stol’n from me bymy daughter!

And jewels---two stones, two rich and precious stones,

Stol’n by my daughter! Justice! Find the girl! (2.7.15-20)

long quote example
Long Quote example

Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

quote analysis
Quote Analysis
    • You include statements expressing your own ideas about how the quote relates back to your author (thesis)
    • Your discussion explains how the quote supports the writer's interpretation.
    • You aren’t just using quotes to use them, you are using them to support your argument. Make sure you clearly explain how the quotes relate to the idea (thesis) you are trying to convey!
  • A clincher sentence:
    • states how the assertion of the topic sentence is true
    • connects to the larger idea that the author is trying to communicate through the examples presented in the paragraph
    • focuses on analytical thinking related to the significance of the paragraph
  • A clincher sentence should NOT:
    • be a transition to the next paragraph nor should it be a quotation
    • be a textual reference
clincher example
Clincher Example
  • An old woman named Mrs. Dubose demonstrates true courage as she battles a morphine addiction. Atticus explains to his children how Mrs. Dubose is courageous: “I wanted you to see something about her—I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It’s when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what” (128). . . (CONTINUATION OF PARAGRAPH) Moreover, Mrs. Dubose demonstrates real courage when she gave her life for her freedom from drugs.
writing your conclusion
Writing your Conclusion….

1) Restate/revisit your thesis

2) Revisit your main ideas in a new way. (Don’t just say the same exact thing you did in the intro.)

3) Explain the overall significance of the ideas expressed in your paper.

4) Tie back and revisit your hook to give a sense of closure.

-If you used a quote, refer back to it.

-If you asked a question, answer it.

-If you introduced an image, refer back to it.

5) End with a final, powerful thought for your readers to remember. Make a REAL WORLD CONNECTION. Why should this matter to the reader? Why did the author decide to write this book? You may decide to make this a larger part of your conclusion.

writing your conclusion restated thesis
Writing your conclusion: Restated Thesis
  • Make sure you RESTATE your thesis in the first sentence!
  • A restated thesis statement is similar to a paraphrase.  The writer takes an original thesis statement, mixes it up a bit, and puts it into his/her own words.  A thesaurus can be a wonderful help when creating one of these. 
examples of a restated thesis
Examples of a restated thesis…
  • Thesis statement: Mrs. Smith is a wonderful teacher because she is nice to students, knows how to teach her subject, and treats her coworkers well.Restated thesis statement: Mrs. Smith is kind to her pupils, has knowledge and skill teaching language arts, and treats her fellow staff members respectfully, which is why she is a fantastic educator.
  • Thesis statement: The Bureau of Engraving and Printing is a significant memorial in Washington DC because it prints all the US currency, creates all the government's security documents, and provides opportunities for tourism.Restated thesis statement: The Bureau of Engraving and Printing is an important building in Washington DC because it does the printing of all United States money, designs all the government's secure documents, and gives tourists opportunities to learn about the memorial.