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QUALITY, SPECIFICATIONS AND YIELD OF CRUDE OIL FROM THE WELL TO THE REFINERY. Scott Blakely Laboratory Services Manager Central & West Coast Regions, Intertek. ENERGY CONFERENCE Miami Beach October 2014. Many Various Crude Oil Types. Ninian, North Sea 36° API. Altamont, Utah 42° API.

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quality specifications and yield of crude oil from the well to the refinery
QUALITY, SPECIFICATIONS AND YIELD OF CRUDE OIL FROM THE WELL TO THE REFINERY

Scott Blakely

Laboratory Services Manager

Central & West Coast Regions, Intertek

ENERGY CONFERENCE

Miami Beach

October 2014

many various crude oil types
Many Various Crude Oil Types

Ninian, North Sea 36° API

Altamont, Utah 42° API

Arabian Light 33° API

  • Conventional Crudes
  • Virgin Crudes
  • Blended Crudes
  • Unconventional Crudes
  • Shale Oils
  • Oil Sands

Barrow Island, Australia

38° API

Sumatran Light 35° API

Boscan, Venezuela

10° API

Nigerian Light 37° API

Offshore California

18° API

Empire Mix, Louisiana Gulf

30° API

slide3

The three benchmark oil products:

  • North America's West Texas Intermediate crude (WTI)
  • North Sea Brent Crude
  • UAE Dubai Crude
slide4

Bakken crude is described as a light sweet crude oil similar to West Texas Intermediate (WTI).

What does that mean?

slide5

The first quality characterization of crude oilis:

API Gravity

API gravity is a standard unit of density compared to water.

If a product’s API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water.

If a product’s API gravity is less than 10, it is heavier and sinks.

Quantities of crude oil are often measured in metric tons.

slide6

API Gravity is determined by test methods:

ASTM D1298 or D287, Hydrometer

ASTM D5002, Densitometer

slide7

The API gravity is used to classify oils as light, medium, heavy, or extra heavy:

• Light – API > 31.1

• Medium – API between 22.3 and 31.1

• Heavy – API < 22.3

• Extra Heavy – API < 10.0

WTI has an API Gravity around 40

Bakken has an API Gravity around 42

API Gravity of an oil is the largest determinant of its market value.

Less dense oil or “light oil” is preferable to more dense oil as it contains greater quantities of hydrocarbons that can be converted to gasoline and diesel fuel.

slide8

The second quality characterization of crude oilis:

Sulfur Content

The Sulfur content is used to classify oils as sweet or sour:

• Sweet < 0.5 %mass

• Sour >= 0.5 %mass

Sour crude oil needs the sulfur to be removed before it can be refined, thereby increasing the cost of processing.

slide9

Sulfur is determined by test method:

ASTM D4294, X-ray Fluorescence

The sample is placed in an X-ray beam and resultant excited X radiation is measured.

Water and Sediment can be a significant interference as they can settle out on the cell membrane thus obscuring the X-Ray and giving falsely lower sulfur value.

Centrifuging sample to remove water and sediment will remove this interference.

slide10

The next quality characteristics of crude oilare:

Water and Sediment

When extracted from formations, crude oil will contain some amount of water and solids.

Most water and sediment is separated at the field.

Crude oil is typically sold under certain water and sediment specification.

Refiners may also have initial dehydration and desalting process units.

Obviously, at $100 per barrel, nobody wants to purchase water and sediment.

slide11

Water and Sedimentare determined by various test methods:

ASTM D4007, Water & Sediment by Centrifuge

ASTM D4006, Water by Distillation

ASTM D473, Sediment by Extraction

ASTM D4807, Sediment by Membrane Filtration

ASTM D4928, Water by Coulometric

Karl Fischer Titration

slide12

There are various specifications for Water & Sediment.

The industry has always been wary of setting specs for these contaminants for fear that parties will determine it is acceptable to “blend” these in, up to those limits.

These contaminants are much more expensive to remove at the refinery than disposed properly at the oilfield.

who sets crude oil specifications
Who sets Crude Oil Specifications?

Refiners

Terminals

Transportation: Pipelines, Rail, Barges, & Ship

Government agencies: EPA, DOT/PHMSA

Contracts: Buyers, Commodity Exchanges such as NYMEX

Refinery

Barge

Rail Freight

Storage

Truck

Pipeline

Wellhead

slide14

Vapor Pressure

EPA requirements for floating roof tank limits at terminals

DOT/PHMSA limits for transportation by pipeline, rail, and truck

slide15

Vapor Pressureby test methods:

ASTM D323, manual cylinder

ASTM D6377, automated instrument

EPA has stated that D6377 result of VPCR4(100ºF) is accepted alternative to D2879.

ASTM D2879, Isoteniscope

ASTM Dxxxx, pending cylinder field test

slide16

Critical Concerns of Vapor Pressure Sampling:

Live crude oil must be sampled into Floating Piston Cylinders (FPC)

FPC are current industry recommendation, but they have drawbacks.

They are expensive.

Cylinders are reactive to hydrogen sulfide unless treated.

They usually require 30psi pressure to fill.

FPC only pull spot samples which may not be representative of whole tank.

Dead crude oil (stabilized to remove C1-C3 hydrocarbons) can be sampled in 1L bottles filled 70% – 80%.

slide18

Hydrogen Sulfide by test methods:

UOP163, H2S in Liquid Phase

by Potentiometric Titration

ASTM D7621 / IP 570, H2S in Liquid Phase by Analyzer

ASTM D5707 Modified, H2S in Vapor Phase by Drager Tube

slide19

Critical Concerns of Hydrogen Sulfide:

Bakken crude oil and many other types typically contain more than 2000ppm Hydrogen Sulfide in vapor phase.

Hydrogen Sulfide kills and creates a major transportation and handling danger.

Crude Oil containing high amounts of Hydrogen Sulfide must be additized with scavenger to remove this danger.

Too much scavenger is also a concern for the refiner.

slide20

Other tests required by DOT / PHMSA

for rail transport of Bakken Crude Oil:

Initial Boiling Point, ASTM D86

Flash Point, ASTM D56 manual preferred

It can be dangerous to perform a flash point on flammable product with a theoretical flash point of -40ºC (-40ºF)

• If IBP <=95oF, then PG I classification and nothing further needs to be done.

• If IBP >95oF & Flash Point is <= 73oF then PG II classification

• If IBP >95oF & Flash Point is >73oF and <=140oF then PG III classification, which may well still need to be transported under PG I or II requirements.

slide21

Organic Chlorides

Organic chlorides are not known to be naturally present in crude oils.

Organic chlorides can be produced from hydrochloric acid in hydrotreating or reforming reactors. The acid accumulates in condensing regions of the refinery causing damaging corrosion.

slide22

Organic Chloridesby test methods:

ASTM D4929,

Procedure A - Potentiometric Titration

Procedure B - Combustion Microcoulometry

ASTM D7536, X-ray Fluorescence

slide23

Critical Concerns of Organic Chlorides:

Organic Chlorides have caused detrimental effects to refiners numerous occasions.

The industry is fearful of setting specifications other than at the lower detection limit of the methodologies (<1ppm) over concerns that this contaminant might be blended into product.

slide24

Crude Oil Characterization

NYMEX Specifications

API Gravity

Sulfur

Sediment & Water

Vapor Pressure

Pour Point, ASTM D97

Viscosity, ASTM D445

ASTM D7042

slide25

Crude Oil Characterization

Other Typical Contract Specifications

Acid Number (TAN), ASTM D664

Acidic constituents can cause corrosion.

Indicates amount of inorganic metals, rust, or dirt present.

Ash Content, ASTM D482

Nickel, Vanadium, and Iron,

ASTM D5863 / D5708

These elements can deactivate refinery catalysts during processing and also cause corrosion. Crude oil value can be affected by high concentrations.

slide26

Crude Oil Characterization

Other Typical Specifications

Asphaltenes,

ASTM D3279, D6560 / IP143

Heptane insoluble, highest molecular mass material. They may give problems during storage and handling

Microcarbon Residue Test,

ASTM D4530

Indicates tendency to form carbonaceous type deposits under degradation conditions

slide27

Crude Oil Characterization

Other Typical Refinery Requirements

Excessive chloride can result in

corrosion and has detrimental effects on catalysts. Results indicate whether crude oil requires desalting.

Salt, ASTM 3230

Nitrogen content, ASTM D5762

Nitrogen compounds can contaminate refinery catalysts.

slide28

Light Gases

Naphtha

Kerosene

Distillate

Fuel –

Gas Oil

Heavy

Products

API 40.1 39.1 37.5 32.1 27.9 20.6

Sulfur Content

Wt.% 0.13 0.35 0.40 0.93 2.85 3.34

crude assay

Laboratory Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Unit, ASTM D2892 TBP 15 / 5 Tower

Crude Assay

IBP to 752oF

(or 400oC)

slide30

Crude Assay

Laboratory Vacuum Distillation Unit

ASTM D5236 Vacuum Potstill

752oF to 1050oF

(or 565oC)

slide31

IBP

Laboratory Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Unit, ASTM D2892 TBP 15 / 5 Tower

IBP

to

752o F

(or 400o C)

700o F Range

Laboratory Vacuum Distillation Unit

ASTM D5236 Vacuum Potstill

752o F

to

1050o F

(or 565o C)

1050o F

pilot plant evaluations
Pilot Plant Evaluations

P84-88, fixed bed hydroprocessing pilot plants

150 Still, 150 gallon batch distillation unit

slide34

Intertek “Rapid Yield Assay”

ASTM D7169,

High Temperature Simulated Distillation

Gas Chromatography

ASTM D7900,

Light Hydrocarbons (C1-C9)

Gas Chromatography

Rapid Yield Assay is merged data from

ASTM D7169 & ASTM D7900

slide36

Intertek “Rapid Yield Assay” Benefits:

Limited sample size requirement (5mls)

Fast turnaround time for analysis – 24hrs

Cost is much less expensive.

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Crude Quality is more than Gravity/Sulfur.
  • Quality can affect transportation safety.
  • It can be restricted by government regulations.
  • There can be a direct effect of commodity value.
  • It can give a good indication of refinery yields.

www.intertek.com/petroleum

slide38

This presentation has been prepared for the sole benefit of providing general comparative type information on crude oil. Intertek assumes no responsibility for the content, accuracy, or completeness of the data presented and does not in any way endorse its use or fitness for a particular purpose.

references
References

Contact Details:

Scott Blakely, Laboratory Services Manager

Central & West Coast Regions, Intertek

Email: scott.blakely@intertek.com

References:

COQA.org “Crude Oil Quality Association”

CCQTA.com “Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association”

North Dakota Petroleum Council

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

www.osha.gov/SLTC/hydrogensulfide