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Crude Oil

Crude Oil. Oil directly from the ground which is thick liquid with variety of hydrocarbons, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen. 35% of oil in deposits is removed Remaining 65% of oil is heavy crude oil Too hard and expensive to remove and refine

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Crude Oil

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  1. Crude Oil Oil directly from the ground which is thick liquid with variety of hydrocarbons, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen

  2. 35% of oil in deposits is removed • Remaining 65% of oil is heavy crude oil • Too hard and expensive to remove and refine • If prices of oil continue to increase about 10% of oil will be flushed with water to remove • Not efficient and requires 1/3 barrel of crude oil to get a full barrel of heavy crude oil

  3. Oil Drilling • Negatives • Oil spills • Harmful effects due to use and extraction • Positives • Technologies allow for • Deeper drilling • Fewer rigs • Get to deeper oil

  4. Where is the oil • OPEC (67%) Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Libya, Nigeria, Venezuela, UAE, Algeria, and Indonesia, • Saudis 26% • Other Arab nations 40% • Latin America (Ven. 9%) • Russia et al 6 % • US 3% (Refining in gulf of Mexico)

  5. How long will supplies last? • Believed to have world production peak between 2010+2030 • U.S. peaked in 1975 • Estimates believe that at current usage oil supply will last between 45 and 100 years. • Need to change primary energy source • Past energy timeline: woodcoaloil??? • Believe that by 2100 primary energy source will be natural gas + hydrogen

  6. Tar Sands • Mixture of clay, sand, water, bitumen • Majority too deep to mine for profit and few are able to be mined at surface • 3-5x as much greenhouse gas as oil because of energy required to process • Known as “world’s dirtiest oil”

  7. coal

  8. Lignite • Brown coal • Lowest quality coal with the most impurities and sulfur content • Used as energy for steam power. • 60% carbon content • Inefficient in use as energy source

  9. Bituminus Coal • Made of Bituminus • Naturally occurring byproduct of decomposition • 60-80% carbon content • Dark brown/gray in color

  10. Anthracite • Highest Carbon content at about 98% • Cleanest burning and least amount of impurities

  11. What is coal used for

  12. Coal usage / location • Commercial energy = 21% • Electricity = 62% • 66% of known coal deposits are in U.S • 11% are in China

  13. Pros Cons • Large supply exists • High energy yield • Cheap ~$.04 per kwhr • Technology already exists • Highly pollutant • Land, water, air destruction • Hard to transport

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