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Crude Oil

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Crude Oil

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  1. 28th September Crude Oil MUST know how oil formed SHOULD describe FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION

  2. CRUDE OIL What is the environmental impact of crude oil?

  3. Oil experts rush to stem huge spill in Nigeria

  4. CRUDE OIL What is the economic importance of crude oil? Within a decade, the US will be heavily dependent on African oil. Little wonder the Pentagon is preparing a strategy for the region. I too believe the United States may come into direct conflict with China over Africa's oil and other resources. Whilst China is offering Africa goods and development projects on a vast scale, the US is only offering paper in return for oil.

  5. Shell reports profit of £3m every hour The oil giant said it made $10.9 billion (£6.55 billion) profit between July and September. It attributed the figure, which is 71 per cent higher than last year, to record crude oil prices. In July, the price of a barrel of oil reached an unprecedented $147. Following Shell's announcement, the chancellor, Alistair Darling, called on oil companies to pass on savings to consumers by cutting the cost of petrol at the pump. "I want to see that reduction passed on to the pumps as quickly as possible, because people are entitled to see the benefit of that falling price reflected in what they actually pay when they fill up the car," Mr Darling told GMTV.

  6. CRUDE OIL What is the social importance of crude oil? How does it affect our live? Have you ever used medicine? Why does the price of petrol go up and down? Jet fuel – have you ever used a train or a plane? How many things are made from plastic?

  7. Uses of crude oil

  8. A MIXTURE OF COMPOUNDS – some are longer than others (many are alkane hydrocarbons)

  9. How is crude oil formed? http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway/carbon_chem/4_crude_oil1.shtml

  10. Formation of oil and gas 1) Layers of dead sea _____ settle on the seabed. 2) Layers of __________ rock build up on top. 3) The heat and ________ from these rocks, along with the absence of ______, mean that oil and gas are formed over ______ of years. Words – sedimentary, millions, oxygen, creatures, pressure

  11. The hydrocarbon vapours rise quickly up the column until they reach the tray where the temperature is slightly below their boiling point. Here they condense and become a liquid again on the tray. This is how the different fractions are separated

  12. 60 – 100 oC LPG Camping gas Petrol Cars Plastics and medicines Naptha Paraffin Aeroplanes Diesel Cars and lorries Fueloil / lubricating oil Central heating, ships, lubricants Bitumen(residue) Tar for roads 360 oC

  13. Oil slick caused by spillage Smoke from the Buncefield oil depot fire, Dec 2005 Sea bird covered in oil Oil well fire Environmental problems with oil extraction

  14. US soldiers in the Gulf war, which many say was based as much on the politics of oil prices as it was on human rights Political problems with oil extraction

  15. The link between politics and oil prices

  16. Demonstrate your learning • Choose one of the following tasks outlining your concerns about the oil industry… • Write a letter to your MP. • Write a short newspaper article. • Write and perform a short report for TV or radio news.

  17. Can you now… • Say how crude oil is formed? • Say how we get it out the ground? • Say why crude oil is useful? • Describe how crude oil is separated?

  18. Keywords Unscramble these keywords: dice lour hardy bronco facial torn install idiot

  19. Cracking MUST know the reason oil is cracked SHOULD describe how cracking works Unscramble these keywords: dice lour hardy bronco facial torn install idiot

  20. Chemical bonds and intermolecular forces Black lines show strong covalent bonds between atoms The longer the chain, the stronger the intermolecular forces

  21. THINK! One use of crude oil!? REMEMBER! How did I separate ethanol and water? DESCRIBE! How was crude oil formed?

  22. 60 – 100 oC LPG Camping gas Petrol Cars Plastics and medicines Naptha Paraffin Aeroplanes Diesel Cars and lorries Fueloil / lubricating oil Central heating, ships, lubricants Bitumen(residue) Tar for roads 360 oC

  23. Cracking Copy this diagram as a mirror image (left to right) Porcelain fragments (the catalyst) Inverted test tube to collect gas Mineral wool soaked in paraffin List the safety precautions when cracking What type of compound is the gas produced?

  24. Cracking dodecane

  25. Cracking MUST know the reason oil is cracked CLUE: which fraction of crude oil is most in demand? SHOULD describe how cracking works CLUE: how are the large molecules broken up into little ones?

  26. What is in Oil? MUST be able to draw out alkanes and alkenes SHOULD describe the difference between alkanes and alkenes RECALL – why is crude oil useful? What is a hydrocarbon?

  27. Alkane Hydrocarbons CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 All these formulae represent alkane hydrocarbons – if the number of carbons in the molecule = n, what is the general formula of an alkane? Define the term HYDROCARBON CLUE C2H5OH is NOT a hydrocarbon

  28. GREEN = CARBON - must have FOUR bonds ORANGE = HYDROGEN – must have only ONE bond CH4 C2H6 C3H8

  29. Alkane Hydrocarbons CnH2n+2 ONLY CONSIST OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON. What is the formula of the alkane with 12 carbons? Mol. Formula Name Displayed formula CH4 Methane C2H6 Ethane C3H8 Propane C4H10 Butane C5H12 Pentane

  30. Alkane Hydrocarbons These hydrocarbons are SATURATED. CH4 Methane C2H6 Ethane C3H8 Propane C4H10 Butane C5H12 Pentane

  31. Alkene Hydrocarbons Not all hydrocarbons are alkanes! Some have the formula CnH2n and we call this group of hydrocarbons ALKENES. Mol. Formula Name Displayed formula C2H4 Ethene C3H6 Propene C4H8 Butene C5H10 Pentene

  32. To test for alkanes/alkenes use orange bromine water. ALKENES DECOLOURSIE bromine water. ALKANES DO NOT!

  33. Alkene Hydrocarbons These hydrocarbons have carbon-carbon DOUBLE bonds. They could take more hydrogen atoms. They are said to be UNSATURATED. C2H4 Ethene C3H6 Propene C4H8 Butene C5H10 Pentene

  34. Try these! 1. Draw out the structure of methane CH4 2. Write down the name and draw out the structure of C2H6 3. Draw out the structure of C2H4 Name it! 4. What do ALKENES have that ALKANES don’t have!! 5. If the general formula for an alkane is CnH2n+2, what is the general formula for an alkene?

  35. A MIXTURE OF COMPOUNDS – some are longer than others (many are alkane hydrocarbons)

  36. Distillation Explain in your own words how the ethanol and water mixture was separated. Keywords: Boil condense boiling point DIFFERENCE temperature

  37. How might we separate the two butane molecules? MUCH WEAKER INTERMOLE-CULAR BOND VERY STRONG BOND (COVALENT)

  38. Distillation The ………………… of hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) in ………. oil are separated because they have different ……………………. points. A tower with a temperature …………………….. allows hydrocarbons with ……………… numbers of carbon atoms to be separated as a particular fraction. This process is called ………………………….. DISTILLATION. GRADIENT BOILING CRUDE MIXTURE SIMILAR

  39. Q4. Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes because they have DOUBLE BONDS. Q5. C4H8 BUTENE Q6. Ethene has a double bond – so no more room for hydrogen Q7. You can tell whether petrol contains double bonds by adding bromine water and seeing if it decolourises! WELL DONE!

  40. Keyword Practice Hydrocarbon …. Fractional Distillation …. Intermolecular forces …. Molecular formula …. Displayed formula …. Alkanes all have the formula …..

  41. Starter for 5 ….. Without looking at notes: • Draw out the structure of the alkane C3H8 • How many carbons would the hydrocarbon used for jet fuel have? • How is an alkene different to an alkane? • What are the products made when a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen? • Describe the process of distillation.

  42. ignite more easily • more volatile • flow easily (not viscous) Low boiling point SMALL MOLECULES • do not ignite very easily • Not very volatile • does not flow easily (viscous) High boiling point LARGE MOLECULES

  43. C1 – C5 GASES C5 – C12 LIQUIDS > C12 SOLIDS

  44. Combustion of Fuels Complete the symbol equation for the combustion of propane: C3H8 + O2 Problem of carbon dioxide? CO2 + H2O

  45. Incomplete Combustion This is when not enough oxygen is available for complete combustion(e.g. poorly ventilated gas burner) C3H8 + O2 C3H8 + O2 What are the problems? CO + H2O C + H2O

  46. Sulphur Impurities Hydrocarbons often contain sulphur. When these hydrocarbons burn ……………….. is often made. This can cause acid rain. Problems of acid rain?

  47. Comparing C4H10 and C12H26 C4H10 C12H26 • Put each statement into the correct column: • The most flammable (easy to ignite) • Has the highest boiling point • Most volatile • Likely to be a gas • Called dodecane • Will burn with a more smoky flame • More viscous

  48. Social and Environmental Problems return

  49. What can be done? • To tackle global warming? • To still provide for our energy needs? How can we fuel our cars? How can we generate electricity?