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Standardisation Issues in eLearning. by Diptendu Dutta AUNWESHA Presented at IEEE Computer Chapter 19 th October, 2001. Outline. About eLearning - what is it, its advantages and drivers How eLearning Works Why is standardisation required Who are the main players

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standardisation issues in elearning

Standardisation Issuesin eLearning


Diptendu Dutta


Presented at

IEEE Computer Chapter

19th October, 2001

  • About eLearning - what is it, its advantages and drivers
  • How eLearning Works
  • Why is standardisation required
  • Who are the main players
  • Application Architecture - IEEE LTSA
  • Content - ADL SCORM
  • Metadata - IEEE LOM

What is eLearning?

  • eLearning is the creation, enabling, delivery and/or facilitation of learning by leveraging various
  • Internet, Intranet and Web technologies.
  • “The next big killer application for the internet is going to be education. Education over the internet is going to be so big it is going to make e-mail look like a rounding error.”
  • John Chambers, CEO, CISCO Systems
  • "Triggered by the Internet, continuing adult education may well become our greatest growth industry."
  • Peter Drucker (Forbes 5/15/2000)







Results Measurements



Retention Measurements



Relative Cost



The Benefits of eLearning




What Drives eLearning?


Rapid obsolescence of knowledge

and training

Need for just-in-time training


Search for cost-effective ways

to meet learning needs of

globally distributed workforce

Skills gap and demographic

changes drive need for new

learning models

Demand for flexible access to

lifelong learning


Internet access becoming standard

at work and home

Advances in digital technologies

enable creation of interactive,

media rich content

Increasing bandwidth and better

delivery platforms make e-learning

more attractive

Growing selection of high-quality

e-Learning products and services

Emerging technology standards

facilitating compatibility and

Usability of e-learning products


why is standardisation required
Why is Standardisation Required
  • The legacy of proprietary CBT systems that were retrofitted to work over the web was holding back standardisation
  • The lack of standards was severely preventing the widespread adoption of this mode of learning
  • Standards are critical for the success of the eLearning industry since they
    • Permit Mixing and matching content from multiple sources
    • Avoid being trapped by a vendors proprietary learning technology
the major players in standardisation
The major players in standardisation
  • IMS Global LearningConsortium
  • Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC)
  • IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee (IEEE LTSC)
  • Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative (ADL)
application architecture ieee ltsa
Application Architecture - IEEE LTSA
  • LTSA - Learning Technology Reference Architecture
  • LTSA Components
    • Processes - learner entity, coach, evaluation, delivery
    • Stores - learner records, learning resources
    • Flows - learning preferences, behaviour, assessment information, performance information, query, catalog info, learning content, interaction context
content adl scorm
Content - ADL SCORM
  • SCORM - Sharable Content Object Reference Model
  • Built upon the work of IMS, AICC, IEEE to create one unified content model
  • 3 main components
    • A course structure format with XML binding
    • A meta-data format for courses and content with XML binding
    • An API for the run-time environment
meta data ieee lom
Meta Data - IEEE LOM
  • Learning content that is tagged with self-describing meta-data can be systematically searched and retrieved for use and reuse
  • The IEEE LOM (Learning Object Metadata) consists of 9 categories
    • General
    • Lifecycle
    • Technical
    • Educational
    • Rights
    • Relational
    • Annotation
    • Classification
    • Meta-metadata
  • IMS provides an XML binding for the above metadata specification and more recently has also come up with an RDF binding