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Phylum Arthropoda !. By: Anna Grace Watkins. Arthropod Characteristics:. Arthropods pollinate many of the flowering plants on Earth. Arthropods are bilateral symmetrical. They have an exoskeleton and appendages.

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phylum arthropoda

Phylum Arthropoda!

By: Anna Grace Watkins

arthropod characteristics
Arthropod Characteristics:
  • Arthropods pollinate many of the flowering plants on Earth.
  • Arthropods are bilateral symmetrical.
  • They have an exoskeleton and appendages.
    • An appendage is any structure, such as a leg or an antenna, that grows out of the body of an animal.
    • They help the arthropod with its sensing, walking, feeding, and mating.
    • Some arthropods have a head and a fused thorax and abdomen, but others have an abdomen and a fused head and thorax called a cephalothorax.
characteristics continued
Characteristics Continued:
  • Arthropods must shed their old exoskeleton often.
  • They are very successful due to the presence of an exoskeleton.
    • This process is called molting.
    • They go through this because their exoskeleton can not grow, but before it molts, a new, soft exoskeleton is formed from chitin-secreting cells beneath the old one.
    • But while the new exoskeleton is soft ,they become very venerable to predators because they can not protect their selves.
    • Most arthropods molt four to seven times in their lives.
characteristics continued1
Characteristics Continued:
  • Most arthropods are segmented, but not as much as worms.
    • There are 3 sections:
      • Head
      • Thorax
      • Abdomen
characteristics continued2
Characteristics Continued:
  • Arthropods are mostly very quick!
  • They crawl, run, climb, dig, swim, and fly.
  • They have an open circulatory system with vessels that carry blood away from their hearts.
  • Also has a complete digestive system with a mouth, stomach, intestine, and anus.
  • Arthropods also reproduce sexually.
  • They have a wide variety of respiratory structure .
    • Gills, book lungs, & tracheal tubes!
      • Other openings in their body is spiracles.
characteristics continued3
Characteristics Continued:
  • Arthropods have acute senses.
  • Some can even communicate by pheromones, which are chemical odor signals given off by animals.
  • Their vision is also very important also.
  • Most have a pair of large compound eyes and from three to eight simple eyes.
  • Compound eyes can detect movements of prey, mates, or predators, and can also detect colors.
  • Arthropods also have well-developed nervous system that process information coming in from the sense organs.
  • Its simple nervous system consists of a double ventral nerve cord, an anterior brain, and several ganglia.
    • The ganglia acts as control centers for the body section in which they are located.
class arachnida
Class Arachnida:
  • 30,000 Species!
  • But only a dozen a harmful to humans.
  • Spiders are the largest group of arachnids.
  • Arachnids have 6 pairs of jointed appendages.
  • The first pair of appendages are called chelicerae. (pinchers/fangs)
  • The second pair of appendages are called the pedipalps.
  • The remaining 4 appendages are modified as legs for locomotion.
  • No antennae!
  • Has structures called spinnerets where the spider silk is secreted and is spun into thread.
  • 2 body regions.
    • The Cephalorthorax
    • The Abdomen
class arachnida pictures
Class Arachnida Pictures:

Spider:

Scorpion:

class diplopoda
Class Diplopoda:
  • Millipedes eat mostly plants and dead material on damp forest floor.
  • They do not bite, but can spray bad smelling fluids from their defensive stink glands.
  • There are estimated 8,000 species.
  • Centipedes are found in an array of terrestrial habitats from tropical rainforests to deserts.
  • they are found in soil and leaf litter, under stones and deadwood, and inside logs.
class crustacea
Class Crustacea:
  • Crustaceans are aquatic .
  • They exchange gas as water flows over feathery gills.
  • They are the only arthropods that have two pairs of antennae for sensing.
  • Some have 3 body sections & others only have 2.
  • Many have five pairs of walking legs that are used for:
    • Walking
    • Seizing prey
    • & cleaning other appendages
  • All have:
    • Mandibles for crushing food.
    • 2 compound eyes.
class chilopoda
Class Chilopoda:
  • Centipedes are carnivorous and eat soil arthropods, snails, slugs, and worms.
  • When they bite you its very painful to humans.
  • They have Malpighian tubules for excreting waste.
  • Millipedes have tracheal tubes!
  • They may have from 15 to 181 body segments.
    • But they always have an odd number of segments.
class merostomata
Class Merostomata:
  • It includes only four living species.
  • These arthropods migrate to shallow water during mating season.
  • Female lay their eggs on land, buried in sand above the high water mark.
  • They possess compound eyes.
  • Also have a semicircular exoskeleton, and a long pointed tail.
  • They also have 4 pairs of walking legs.
  • 5 or 6 pairs of appendages that movie over their gills.
class insecta
Class Insecta:
  • Class Insecta is by far the largest group of arthropods.
  • Insects mate more than once, or less during their lifetimes.
  • The eggs are fertilizes internally and in some species, shells form around them.
  • Most lay a large number of eggs.
  • Females are equipped with an appendage that allows the insect to pierce through the ground or wood service to lay its eggs in the hole.
  • Some insects go through complete metamorphosis, where the insect goes through a series of developmental changes from egg to nymph.
    • Egg
    • Larvae
    • Pupa
    • Adult
  • Others go through incomplete metamorphosis , where the insect goes through only three stages of development.
    • Egg
    • Nymph
    • Adult
class insecta pictures
Class Insecta Pictures:

Butterfly

Grasshopper

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