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Birds. Specialized Bird Features. Wings Feathers Mating Asserting dominance Regulation of body temperature Camouflage Countershading Flight. Specialized Bird Features. Bones Pneumatization. Specialized Bird Features. Beaks Feet Number of toes Size Talons/lack of talons

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specialized bird features
Specialized Bird Features
  • Wings
  • Feathers
    • Mating
    • Asserting dominance
    • Regulation of body temperature
    • Camouflage
      • Countershading
    • Flight
specialized bird features1
Specialized Bird Features
  • Bones
    • Pneumatization
specialized bird features2
Specialized Bird Features
  • Beaks
  • Feet
    • Number of toes
    • Size
    • Talons/lack of talons
    • Webbed
feathers
Feathers
  • Modified scales
  • Extension of dermis
    • Primaries
      • Long, found at the tip of the wing
      • Allow for lift during flight
    • Secondaries
      • Shorter, near middle of wing
    • Retrices
      • Tail feathers
slide6
Skin
  • Thin and loose
  • Uropygial gland
    • Secretes oil used to preen feathers
external features
External Features
  • Crown
  • Nape
  • Beak (upper and lower)
  • External nares
  • External auditory meatus
  • Breast
  • Abdomen
  • Limbs
    • Upper – wings, specialized for flight
    • Lower – specialized for walking upright and perching
      • Hallux (back toe/heel)
  • Tail (with feathers)
skeletal adaptations
Skeletal Adaptations
  • Sternum
    • Enlarged to support muscles used for flight
  • Synsacrum
    • Fused lower vertebrae and sacrum/coccyx
muscle adaptations for flight
Muscle adaptations for flight
  • Pectoralis; Supracoracoideus
digestive system organs
Digestive System Organs
  • Same similar organ structure and order as other vertebrates
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Crop
    • At the base of the esophagus
    • Food storage
  • Proventriculus: “true stomach”
    • Site of chemical digestion
  • Gizzard
    • After the “true stomach” to break down and mix food with digestive enzymes
respiratory adaptations
Respiratory Adaptations
  • Air sacs extend from the lungs
  • Syrinx
    • Lower end of the trachea
    • Contains internal membranes
    • Produces bird calls
respiratory adaptations1
Respiratory Adaptations
  • Air sacs:
    • Increase amount of air available
    • More oxygen for higher metabolism
heart and the circulatory system
Heart and the Circulatory System
  • Endothermic
  • 4 chambered heart
  • Systemic and Pulmonary Circuits
excretory system
Excretory System
  • Simplified
  • Kidneys
    • Uric acid for excretion
    • Lack of urinary bladder
reproductive system
Reproductive System
  • Simplified reproductive system
  • Male
    • Tesis– oval shaped, above kidneys
  • Female
    • One ovary
      • Left side
  • Both lead to cloaca
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Internal fertilization
  • Females can store sperm for later fertilization
    • Will release eggs from the ovary sporadically
  • Some species possess a calcified shell – chickens
  • Amniotic egg
    • Amnion
    • Chorion
    • Allantois
    • Yolk sac