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Birds. Part II. B. External parasites. 1. Red mites – appear as tiny red specks . Symptoms: restlessness and scratching and picking at their feathers. Red mite. 2. Feather mite – small, gray -colored moving specks. Symptoms: restlessness, severe

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Part II


1. Red mites – appear as tiny red specks. Symptoms: restlessness and scratching and

picking at their feathers.


2. Feather mite – small, gray-colored moving specks. Symptoms: restlessness, severe

scratching, feather picking, and skin irritation.


3. Scaly face – tunnel into the soft tissues around the beak and face. Symptoms: severe



4. Leg mites – tunnel under the scales on the legs.

Symptoms: scaly deposits that become thickened, enlarged, and encrusted.


1. Parrot fever – also called chlamydiosis or psittacosis. Symptoms: nasal discharges,

closing of the eyes, listlessness, appetite loss, weight loss,

Can try to treat with antibiotics in feed or injections. Have to protect yourself, you can get it>>pneumonia

2. Pullorum disease – caused by the bacteria Salmonella pullorum. Symptoms: not

eating, sleepiness, white pasting of feces around the vent.


3. Colibacillosis – caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli. Symptoms: depends on

form; air sac produces cheese like inflammations over the heart, liver and air sacs,


navel infections causes a reddening, swelling, mushiness or wetness around the navel, oviduct infections cause a swelling of the oviduct and a foul smelling discharge.


4. Pasterurellosis – also called fowl cholera. Symptoms: joint, sinus, nasal, middle ear

or skull infections, fever, depression, anorexia


ruffed feathers, mucous discharges, and difficulty breathing. Can be transferred to humans. Treated with antibiotics.


5. Bumblefoot – associated with staphylococcal infections. Symptoms: feet and joints

become hot and swollen with a thick, grayish white fluid,


6. Tuberculosis – caused by Mycobacterium avium. Usually doesn’t show outward signs, just slow weight loss and deterioration of condition.


1. Psittacine Beak and feather disease – also called French molt, viral disease attacks

the immune system.


Symptoms: new feathers do not emerge or may be deformed,

beak and nails may be soft, overgrown, and lose their pigment


2. Newcastle disease – viral disease, respiratory difficulty, tremors, wing droop, twisted



3. Pacheco Parrot’s disease – herpes virus. Symptoms: may become lethargic, regurgitate, and have diarrhea.


1. Goiter – iodinedeficiency. Symptoms: swelling of the thyroid glands in the neck and

interfere with breathing.


2. Rickets – calcium, phosphorus, or Vitamin D3 deficiency. Symptoms: lameness, stiff-legged gait, or a constant resting in the squatting position, and decreased growth.


Good natural sources of Vitamin D:* Cod liver oil (only very tiny amounts needed)

Good natural sources of Calcium:* Cuttlebone* Oyster shells* Bone meal* Spinach* Broccoli


4. Obesity – too much food, not enough activity or seeds high in fat. Exercise and go to pellets


1. Sleeping on two legs, normally sleeps on only one leg

2. Feathers are fluffed out, could be chilled


3. A digestive ailment, if feces is runny

4. Not flying around, no activity

5. Eye discharges or continually closed are an indication of a cold.


1. Select a healthy bird

2. Place bird in a dry, warm, draft-free place

3. Subject the bird to little stress



4. No other animals should be around

5. Quarantine and observation period of at least 3-4 weeks before introducing to other birds.


6. Sanitation is extremely important – should provide fresh food and water

7. Keep perches and cage clean.

Reduce stress by giving the bird plenty of room
  • Out of cage playtime & socialization
  • Allow long horizontal flight = flight cages

B. Internal parasites


1. Treat with drugs


C. External parasite

1. Dust with pyrethrum powder or dipped in an appropriate insecticide

2. Cages and equipment cleaned and disinfected thoroughly.


D. Bacterial Diseases

1. Feeding antibiotic treated seed or medicine in feed to treat depending on bacteria.


E. Viral Diseases

1. Depending on disease there are no treatments for some and other need vaccination for



F. Nutritional Problems

1. Goiter deficiency of iodine in diet feed iodine blocks


2. Rickets deficiency/ imbalance of calcium or phosphorous, feed oyster shell or coarse limestone and supplement of Vitamin D3


3. Candidiasis- deficiency of Vitamin A. give vitamin supplements

4. Obesity- change of diet and exercise.

scaly leg mite treatment
Scaly leg mite treatment
  • Apply vaseline over encrusted deposits to seal air holes used by mites
If a bird is showing signs of illness and is resting with its feather fluffed out.
  •  Position a light bulb near the cage to warm the temperature to 85 – 90 F
how to encourage preening
How to encourage preening
  • Preening = to clean, straighten and fluff feathers
  • Removes feather dust and dirt, prevents feather plucking
  • Can be encouraged by spraying a mist of water over the bird
training birds to talk
Training birds to talk
  • Important to keep stress to a minimum
  • Training sessions lasting about 15 minutes at the same time every day
  • Should be conducted by one person
clipping wings
Clipping Wings
  • Clip flight feathers to keep birds from escaping when out of cage
common pet birds

Common Pet Birds

Note that like most other pets, the manner in which the animal is raised, handled, and kept has a profound effect on the temperament of the animal.

budgerigars parakeets
Budgerigars (Parakeets)
  • Native to Australia
  • Can be taught to mimic sounds and words & to do tricks
  • Live 5-15 years
  • small but are very active, energetic, and lively birds.
ringneck parakeet
RingNeck Parakeet
  • Native to India, Asia
  • Size: Small – 17 inches (including tail)
  • Lifespan: 25-30 years
  • Smart & active
  • Ringnecks have the potential to speak with amazing clarity. Additionally, they are adept at learning a great number of words and phrases, making them true masters at mimicry.
  • Ranked in the top five of talking birds
  • Over 40 species
  • Native to Australia, Indonesia & New Guinea
  • Cockatoo’s make exceptional companion birds, if their needs and requirements are adequately met.  They are affectionate, funny, comical, mischievous and generally easy to get along with

Black Palm


african grey
African Grey
  • Native to the Rainforest in

Central & South Africa

  • High-maintenance pets
    • At least 3 hours of out of cage


Bird: $800-$2000

african grey77
African Grey
  • Irene Peperberg’s extensive research with captive African Greys, especially the one known as Alex, have provided evidence that these parrots are capable of associating human words with their meanings
  • some believe that they have the equivalent understanding of a human toddler and the cognitive ability of a 12-year-old human child.


  • smallest of the Cockatoo family
  • Native to Australia
  • Live 10-20 years
  • Can be demanding of attention from owner
  • Whistle and mimic noises

Bird: $75 - $200

sun conure
Sun Conure

- Medium-sized brightly colored

parrot native to northeastern

South America

  • Popular pets due to bright color & ability to talk.
  • Inquisitive temperaments demand a great deal of attention from their owners, and can sometimes be loud

Bird: $600-$1200

amazon parrot
Amazon Parrot
  • Large parrot
  • Native habitat: South America, Mexico and Caribbean
  • Predominantly green
  • Can mimic human speech and other sound
  • Lifespan: 40-80 years
  • Native to: Mexico, Central & South America
  • Most species are associated with the Rainforest
  • Live 50-100 years
  • thrive on frequent interaction and attention from their owners, and a lack of this can lead to their mental and physical suffering.

Scarlet Macaw

  • Small, beautiful, active birds that make great pets for someone who likes birds but doesn't have time for the social interaction that a parrot demands
  • Social – must be kept with other finches
  • Lifespan: 5-10 yrs

Parakeets: $10 - $25

Canaries: $25 - $150

Finches: $10 - $100

African Grey: $800 - $2000+

Cockatoo: $800 - $5000+

Cockatiels: $75 - $200

Macaws: $1200 - $5000+

Amazons: $800 - $2000+