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Birds. Part II. B. External parasites. 1. Red mites – appear as tiny red specks . Symptoms: restlessness and scratching and picking at their feathers. Red mite. 2. Feather mite – small, gray -colored moving specks. Symptoms: restlessness, severe

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    1. Birds Part II

    2. B. External parasites

    3. 1. Red mites – appear as tiny red specks. Symptoms: restlessness and scratching and picking at their feathers.

    4. Red mite

    5. 2. Feather mite – small, gray-colored moving specks. Symptoms: restlessness, severe scratching, feather picking, and skin irritation.

    6. 3. Scaly face – tunnel into the soft tissues around the beak and face. Symptoms: severe irritation.

    7. In scaly face, beaks turn white and chalky

    8. 4. Leg mites – tunnel under the scales on the legs. Symptoms: scaly deposits that become thickened, enlarged, and encrusted.

    9. C. Bacteria diseases

    10. 1. Parrot fever – also called chlamydiosis or psittacosis. Symptoms: nasal discharges, closing of the eyes, listlessness, appetite loss, weight loss,

    11. greenish-colored diarrhea, and labored breathing.

    12. Can try to treat with antibiotics in feed or injections. Have to protect yourself, you can get it>>pneumonia

    13. 2. Pullorum disease – caused by the bacteria Salmonella pullorum. Symptoms: not eating, sleepiness, white pasting of feces around the vent.

    14. 3. Colibacillosis – caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli. Symptoms: depends on form; air sac produces cheese like inflammations over the heart, liver and air sacs,

    15. navel infections causes a reddening, swelling, mushiness or wetness around the navel, oviduct infections cause a swelling of the oviduct and a foul smelling discharge.

    16. 4. Pasterurellosis – also called fowl cholera. Symptoms: joint, sinus, nasal, middle ear or skull infections, fever, depression, anorexia

    17. ruffed feathers, mucous discharges, and difficulty breathing. Can be transferred to humans. Treated with antibiotics.

    18. 5. Bumblefoot – associated with staphylococcal infections. Symptoms: feet and joints become hot and swollen with a thick, grayish white fluid,

    19. and not walking or clasping onto perch.

    20. 6. Tuberculosis – caused by Mycobacterium avium. Usually doesn’t show outward signs, just slow weight loss and deterioration of condition.

    21. D. Viral Disease

    22. 1. Psittacine Beak and feather disease – also called French molt, viral disease attacks the immune system.

    23. Symptoms: new feathers do not emerge or may be deformed, beak and nails may be soft, overgrown, and lose their pigment

    24. 2. Newcastle disease – viral disease, respiratory difficulty, tremors, wing droop, twisted neck.

    25. 3. Pacheco Parrot’s disease – herpes virus. Symptoms: may become lethargic, regurgitate, and have diarrhea.

    26. E. Nutritional Problems

    27. 1. Goiter – iodinedeficiency. Symptoms: swelling of the thyroid glands in the neck and interfere with breathing.

    28. 2. Rickets – calcium, phosphorus, or Vitamin D3 deficiency. Symptoms: lameness, stiff-legged gait, or a constant resting in the squatting position, and decreased growth.

    29. Good natural sources of Vitamin D:* Cod liver oil (only very tiny amounts needed) Good natural sources of Calcium:* Cuttlebone* Oyster shells* Bone meal* Spinach* Broccoli

    30. 3. Candidiasis – Vitamin A deficiency. Early sign: playing with food but not eating.

    31. 4. Obesity – too much food, not enough activity or seeds high in fat. Exercise and go to pellets

    32. F. Other Problems

    33. 1. Overgrown claws-Use emory board or clippers to trim.

    34. 2. Feather plucking – boredom, diet, needs mate, lack of bathing

    35. Toys help

    36. G. Symptoms of Problems

    37. 1. Sleeping on two legs, normally sleeps on only one leg 2. Feathers are fluffed out, could be chilled

    38. 3. A digestive ailment, if feces is runny 4. Not flying around, no activity 5. Eye discharges or continually closed are an indication of a cold.

    39. 6. Problem breathing either irregular, wheezing or noisy 7. Not eating, or very little eating

    40. Discuss the treatment of bird diseases. p. 249

    41. Proper management is important to prevent diseases and ailments.

    42. 1. Select a healthy bird 2. Place bird in a dry, warm, draft-free place 3. Subject the bird to little stress lovebirds

    43. 4. No other animals should be around 5. Quarantine and observation period of at least 3-4 weeks before introducing to other birds.

    44. 6. Sanitation is extremely important – should provide fresh food and water 7. Keep perches and cage clean.

    45. Reduce stress by giving the bird plenty of room • Out of cage playtime & socialization • Allow long horizontal flight = flight cages

    46. Flight Cages