Birds. Part II. B. External parasites. 1. Red mites – appear as tiny red specks . Symptoms: restlessness and scratching and picking at their feathers. Red mite. 2. Feather mite – small, gray -colored moving specks. Symptoms: restlessness, severe
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1. Red mites – appear as tiny red specks. Symptoms: restlessness and scratching and
picking at their feathers.
2. Feather mite – small, gray-colored moving specks. Symptoms: restlessness, severe
scratching, feather picking, and skin irritation.
3. Scaly face – tunnel into the soft tissues around the beak and face. Symptoms: severe
Symptoms: scaly deposits that become thickened, enlarged, and encrusted.
1. Parrot fever – also called chlamydiosis or psittacosis. Symptoms: nasal discharges,
closing of the eyes, listlessness, appetite loss, weight loss,
2. Pullorum disease – caused by the bacteria Salmonella pullorum. Symptoms: not
eating, sleepiness, white pasting of feces around the vent.
3. Colibacillosis – caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli. Symptoms: depends on
form; air sac produces cheese like inflammations over the heart, liver and air sacs,
navel infections causes a reddening, swelling, mushiness or wetness around the navel, oviduct infections cause a swelling of the oviduct and a foul smelling discharge.
4. Pasterurellosis – also called fowl cholera. Symptoms: joint, sinus, nasal, middle ear
or skull infections, fever, depression, anorexia
ruffed feathers, mucous discharges, and difficulty breathing. Can be transferred to humans. Treated with antibiotics.
5. Bumblefoot – associated with staphylococcal infections. Symptoms: feet and joints
become hot and swollen with a thick, grayish white fluid,
6. Tuberculosis – caused by Mycobacterium avium. Usually doesn’t show outward signs, just slow weight loss and deterioration of condition.
1. Psittacine Beak and feather disease – also called French molt, viral disease attacks
the immune system.
beak and nails may be soft, overgrown, and lose their pigment
2. Newcastle disease – viral disease, respiratory difficulty, tremors, wing droop, twisted
3. Pacheco Parrot’s disease – herpes virus. Symptoms: may become lethargic, regurgitate, and have diarrhea.
1. Goiter – iodinedeficiency. Symptoms: swelling of the thyroid glands in the neck and
interfere with breathing.
2. Rickets – calcium, phosphorus, or Vitamin D3 deficiency. Symptoms: lameness, stiff-legged gait, or a constant resting in the squatting position, and decreased growth.
Good natural sources of Vitamin D:* Cod liver oil (only very tiny amounts needed)
Good natural sources of Calcium:* Cuttlebone* Oyster shells* Bone meal* Spinach* Broccoli
3. Candidiasis – Vitamin A deficiency. Early sign: playing with food but not eating.
4. Obesity – too much food, not enough activity or seeds high in fat. Exercise and go to pellets
2. Feathers are fluffed out, could be chilled
4. Not flying around, no activity
5. Eye discharges or continually closed are an indication of a cold.
7. Not eating, or very little eating
2. Place bird in a dry, warm, draft-free place
3. Subject the bird to little stress
5. Quarantine and observation period of at least 3-4 weeks before introducing to other birds.
6. Sanitation is extremely important – should provide fresh food and water
7. Keep perches and cage clean.
1. Treat with drugs
1. Dust with pyrethrum powder or dipped in an appropriate insecticide
2. Cages and equipment cleaned and disinfected thoroughly.
1. Feeding antibiotic treated seed or medicine in feed to treat depending on bacteria.
1. Depending on disease there are no treatments for some and other need vaccination for
1. Goiter deficiency of iodine in diet feed iodine blocks
2. Rickets deficiency/ imbalance of calcium or phosphorous, feed oyster shell or coarse limestone and supplement of Vitamin D3
4. Obesity- change of diet and exercise.
Note that like most other pets, the manner in which the animal is raised, handled, and kept has a profound effect on the temperament of the animal.
Central & South Africa
Bird: $75 - $200
- Medium-sized brightly colored
parrot native to northeastern
Parakeets: $10 - $25
Canaries: $25 - $150
Finches: $10 - $100
African Grey: $800 - $2000+
Cockatoo: $800 - $5000+
Cockatiels: $75 - $200
Macaws: $1200 - $5000+
Amazons: $800 - $2000+