What type of colony was Georgia in 1754? • Georgia ceased to be a proprietary colony and became a royal colony in 1752 - like this colony of royal penguins (king penguins) in South Georgia!!!!
What was the difference between a proprietary colony and a royal colony? • A proprietary colony was one that was governed by a board of trustees, while a royal colony was one directly governed by the king
Who were the puritans and where did they settle? • The puritans were a religious group who moved from South Carolina to 32,000 acres of land in what is today Midway, Georgia.. They moved there bringing their slaves with them and established rice and indigo plantations.
How did the King maintain control of the colony’s day to day operation? • A royal governor was responsible for the colony
How did the royal government differ from the trustees? • The trustees believed the first Georgia settlers were not able to govern themselves, so they did not have the right to vote, hold elections etc… Under the first royal Governor, the colonists were encouraged to take part in the government.
Georgia’s first royal governor was Governor John Reynolds. Who was Georgia’s first royal governor?
What were the components of the first government under Reynolds? • A BICAMERAL or two chamber legislature was set up to represent the eight parishes of the colony.
What was a parish? • A parish was both a church and a British government district. The lower house of the legislature was called the Commons House of Assembly, while the upper house was called the Governor’s Council.
What were the colonists required to have to vote? • In order to vote, a settler had to own at least 50 acres of land. Members of the Assembly had to own at least 500 acres of land.
What was the role of the Assembly? • The assembly could write and vote on bills before they became laws.
Who were the members of the Governor’s Council? • The Governor’s council was made up of members appointed by the king of England. These men were usually wealthy, influential landowners. They were to advise the governor, approve land grants, make laws and sometimes act as judges in legal cases.
What type of court system did Reynolds set up? • Court of Conscience, over which presided a local justice of the peace. Cases that could not be settled in the court of Conscience went to the Governor’s Council.
What caused the French and Indian War? • Greed and Fear – greed to capture the most territory and fear that one country would gain more power than another. The war was the result of territory disputes between Great Britain and France.
Using the map on page 143, list the territories controlled by Spain, Great Britain, and France. • Spanish: Settlements in Florida and Mexico • French: controlled Louisiana North to the Great Lakes plus Canada, British had the thirteen colonies along the Atlantic Coast.
How long did the war last? • The French and Indian War begain in 1754 and lasted nine years.
What alliances/resources did each of the countries have? • The British had the best navy but the French had a stronger army. Great Britain had a strong alliance with the six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy but France had Western tribe trading partners. The French had more military leaders and less internal strife with the French colonists.
Why is it called the French and Indian War? • The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. It is also called the seven years war.
What caused the rivalry to intensify? (see page 143) • Both France and Britain claimed the area of the Ohio River Valley. British traders began trading with tribes that previously traded with the French. Virginia colonists also wanted to expand beyond the Allegheny Mountains into the Ohio Valley. France also claimed this area and continued to build forts there. Virginia Governor Dinwiddie sent George Washington to tell the French to stay out of the area – these demands were ignored.
TIMELINE: France and Britain claim Ohio Valley • George Washington sent to inform French to leave area – Washington ignored –
What was Washington’s response to the French • Washington returns with troops – sets up Fort Necessity – Washington’s men attack French at nearby camp – French attack Fort Necessity – Washington surrenders
What finally changed the tide of the war in favor of the British? • William Pitt was put in charge of the war effort and used the British navy to capture key French Canadian cities of Quebec and Montreal. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 formally ended the war, with Britain emerging victorious.
What was Georgia’s role in the war? • Georgia did not take place in the war, but was helped by the war – Georgia’s western boundary was set at the Mississippi and the southern boundary was moved to St. Mary’s .
How did Georgia’s boundaries change relative to Native Americans? • The Creek and Cherokee gave up all land between the Ogeechee and Savannah rivers north to Augusta and all land south of the Altamaha. In exchange, Georgia colonists could not settle west of the Appalachians.
What were the results of the French and Indian War? • British gain control of Canada • Western frontier opened to Virginia colonists • Great Britain gets Florida from Spain (Spain was an ally of France) • France gives Louisiana territory to Spain • France loses all land in N. America • Great Britain has huge war debt.
How did the new boundaries help Georgia? • Settlers began to migrate to the colony – water access provided key growth for shipping and good farmland/dense forests provided timber and naval store resources.
What was the Proclamation of 1763? • The proclamation moved the state’s southern boundary to the St. Mary’s River AND forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains.
Describe Georgia’s First Assembly • The new Government met in 1755, in Savannah, the colony’s capital and largest city. Governor Reynolds still had the position of Royal Governor.
What changed in the government? • Colonists and Governor Reynolds could not agree on the monetary amount to improve military defenses. Governor Reynolds disbanded the assembly and tried to run the colony himself. The colonists complained to the King that their right to self government was taken away.
How did Bryan County enter into the discussion? • Reynolds wanted to move Savannah to the Ogeechee River, near Richmond Hill. The colonists did not want the location of the capital changed and support for Reynolds continued to decline.
Who was Georgia’s second Royal Governor? • Captain Henry Ellis, a naturalist and scientist, became the second Royal Governor.
How did rule change under Ellis? • Ellis was a popular governor – he allowed well known and wealthy citizens to lead the colony – he maintained favorable relations with South Carolina – he brought together people of many different political groups. He granted new comers large pieces of land and allowed them to bring their slaves.
What happened to Ellis? • Ellis became ill and asked to return to Great Britain – he was, instead, reassigned to Nova Scotia as a royal governor. He never went to Nova Scotia, returning to London and working on policies governing the new world. He died at the age of 85 in Italy (1806)
Who was Georgia’s third Governor? • The honorable James Wright became Governor of Georgia on October 11, 1760. He had been attorney General of South Carolina for twenty one years.
What did this Governor envision for Georgia? • He believed that Georgia would continue to grow if large farms were even bigger, if trading expanded and if the western lands of the colony were opened to the settlers.
What type of defenses did Governor Wright develop? • Wright completed the defenses around Savannah – Savannah was surrounded with palisades and the area forts were made stronger. Sunbury became the official port for ships. Both houses of the colonial assembly worked together to promote economic growth.
Where did the term “cracker” originate? • Undesirable people who moved from Virginia and the Carolinas to settle in the middle and western part of Georgia.
What caused the discontent in the colonies? • During the fifteen years before the American Revolution, many colonists began to tire of British rule and resent its policies. Britain had to pay off its war debt and had to pay soldiers to protect the colonies. To the British, it seemed only fair for the colonists to pay for this. As the British taxed the colonists, the colonists complained. As the colonists complained, Great Britain enacted old laws.
What were the laws Britain passed that caused the colonists to complain? • Navigation Acts – said colonies could only ship their goods on British vessels (not a problem for Georgia because most of its trade was still with Britain). • 1764 – increase tax on wine and imported goods – very little opposition in Georgia as parliament provided most of the money for Georgia’s government (older colonies angered about this as they were paying more). • Sugar act – tax on sugar and molasses – problem with Georgia due to heavy trade of this with Jamaica and Barbados. • 1765: Stamp Act – tax on newspapers, legal documents, licenses.
What resentment accompanied the Stamp Act? • The reaction to the stamp act was swift and sometimes violent. A Stamp Act Congress met in Boston, MA to speak against British taxes. The Georgia colonial assembly was not in session, so Georgia did not send a representative. Georgia citizens did, however, burn an effigy of the stamp master in the streets of Savannah.
Who were the Liberty Boys? • November 6th, group of Georgians came together to oppose the stamp act – they were called The Liberty Boys. They were part of a larger group, The Sons of Liberty.
Why were they called the Liberty Brawlers? • Because they met in local taverns such as Tondee’s Tavern in Savannah.
How did Georgia react to the Townshend Acts of 1767? • Members of the Georgia colonial assembly spoke against these acts, which placed import taxes on tea, paper, glass and coloring for paints.
Who was Noble Wimberly Jones? • Noble Wimberly Jones (his father was original colonist surveyor Noble Jones, who helped Oglethorpe plan the city of Savannah) was elected as speaker of the assembly. Jones was an outspoken leader of the discontented Georgians.