Nationalism Chapter 25
Anti-Colonialism • There was a movement in the colonies that Europe established during Imperialism against European rule. • Often led by intellectuals • Balanced resentment of western domination and respect for western ideas
Anti-Colonialism • Resented the foreigners and their superior attitude toward colonial people • Early movements did not stress independence • Began after WW I and several of the leaders had been Western educated
Internal Debate Independence v. advancement • The elite of the society wrestled with whether they should seek independence from their European conquerors or try and advance within the colonial structure to improve things. • If the colonial regime was looked on favorably a gradual approach to rid the country of them was the preferred route to allow the improvements to happen. • If the regime was a hindrance to change then, the foreigners need to leave.
Internal Debate Modernism vs. traditionalism • The other problem facing the patriots was how to establish nationalism so that they common people could rally around the principles to aid in the cause. • By using traditional values as symbols of their cause it was easier for them to enlist the common people in the effort to overthrow the colonial regime. • The struggle was whether it was more important to focus on advancing the situation of the area or traditional values as the source of nationalism.
Indian National Congress • After the mostly Hindu Indian National Congress (INC) was established in 1885 to increase the rights for Indians under colonial rule. • The INC promoted social and economic development. • Muslim League in 1906 to advance the causes of Islamic Indians,. • It took years for the momentum to build into an organized resistance to colonial power.
Armistar Massacre • In 1919, the Amritsar massacre catapulted the movement. • In Amritsar, 319 (some suggest it was more than 1,000) Indians were slaughtered by British General Dyer during a peaceful protest in the park. • Because the park was walled, there was no way to escape the attackers.
Armistar Massacre • The slaughter was unprovoked and entirely unwarranted. • When news of the massacre spread, Indians joined the self-rule cause by the millions.
Gandhi • Trained as lawyer in England • Became an activist in South Africa • Returned to India in 1915 and worked on non-violent resistance • During the 1920s, Mohandas Gandhi became the movement’s most important voice and organized huge protests against colonial rule.
Gandhi • Gandhi’s philosophy of passive resistance, or civil disobedience, gained popular support in the struggle against British colonial rule. • Instead of fighting with weapons, Gandhi’s followers staged demonstrations and refused to assist the colonial government. • Massive boycotts • Strikes • marches- (Salt March)
Violence • At the same time, however, there was an increase in violence between Hindus and Muslims. • While both groups worked together peacefully against the British, radical members of the group found it hard to tolerate the other
Independence • Government of India Act in 1921 which created a two house parliament and Indians received right to vote. • Conflict between Muslims and Hindus, led to call for separation • Women were active participants
Independence • Nehru led secular side of INC by advocating for the political independence through democracy • Eventually successful after WW II
Nationalism • In the years, prior to WW I the Ottoman Empire was weaken by corruption, weak leaders, and internal rebellions. • In 1908, the Young Turks revolted against the Sultan and reinstated the 1876 Constitution that implemented a legislative assembly. • The Young Turks helped to develop a new sense of nationalism. • Ottoman Empire fought on losing side of WW I and had its territory divided up by the Allies after the war.
Ataturk • As the Allies divide the Ottoman Empire, Ataturk (Mustapha Kemal) comes to power and creates modern, secular nation. • Led defense of Dardanelles against British during WWI • Established Republic of Turkey, but was secular and autocratic
Ataturk • State direction of industry • Swiss-based law code • Women given rights
Persia/Iran • The Qajar Dynasty (1794-1925) had difficulty resisting the Russian and internal rebellions. • The shah was trying to modernize his country through economic and political reforms but met resistance from tribal leaders so he asked the British and Russians for help to stop the unrest. • British and Russian aided the shah for access to oil.
Persia/Iran • Shi’ite pressure led Shah to make reforms, but these were short-lived due to a munity • Reza Khan led army revolt in 1921 and he established the Pahlavi Dynasty modeled after Turkey. • Khan did encourage Islam but also Western education system as well.
Partition of Middle East • Mandate system established to oversee the former territories of the Ottoman Empire • France controlled Syria & Lebanon • Great Britain controlled Palestine, Iraq & Jordan • Balfour Declaration (1917) established a Jewish homeland, allowed emigration in Palestine which angered Muslims in the Middle East
Saudi Arabia • Wahabbi leader, Ibn Saud, unites northern Arabia in 1932 • Extremely conservative and autocratic • Oil discoveries in 1938 led to founding of ARAMCO (U.S. companies drill for oil and pay the Saudi monarchy money to due for drilling rights).
Soviet Intervention • The Soviets wanted to spread the influence of communism around the world. • The Communist International (ComIntern) established goals to gain allies and weaken imperialistic nations • The ComIntern established communist parties in every colonial and semi-colonial society in Asia by the end of the 1920’s.
Soviet Intervention • Provided aid and support to supporters in Asia • Communism made limited inroads in Middle East due to conflict with traditional values • Ba’ath Party in Syria blended Arab nationalism and socialism
Overthrown of Qing Dynasty • Republic established in 1911 after Empress Cixi forced to step down • Sun Yat-sen became first president but his republic was fragile • Yat-senwas replaced by General Yuan Shikai (d. 1916), who attempted to establish a new dynasty
Overthrow of Qing Dynasty • Republic established in 1911 after Empress Cixi forced to step down • Sun Yat-sen became first president but his republic was fragile • Yat-sen was replaced by General Yuan Shikai (d. 1916), who attempted to establish a new dynasty • Resistance from KMT (Nationalist party) was suppressed when Shikai dissolved parliament
Instability of China • Chinese Communist party (CCP) formed in 1921 • New Culture Movement aims at modernizing and westernizing started at Peking University but did not appeal to peasants so unpopular outside cities • Foreign pressure from Japan- 21 Demands- Japan tries to extend protectorate into China, China resists
Instability of China • Japan is given Germany’s territories in China after WW I for supporting Allies • Weak central authority by 1920
Beginning of Chinese Civil War • KMT (Nationalists) attempts to establish control, works with the CCP at first • Chiang Kai-Shek comes to power, turns on communists • Chiang Kai-Shek forces communists into the Long March into Northern China where many die • Mao controls CCP, focuses on peasants to try and control China
Chiang Kai Shek • Chiang Kai Shek attempts to modernize by combining Confucian values and western technology • Political base was elites and middle class, had little peasant support • Kai Shekcontinued to struggle military, social, and political issues • Neither liberal nor traditional interests were satisfied with the changes he tried to make
Japan and Changes in Politics • With western powers struggling Japan tries to extend power in Asia by taking over Manchuria and Korea • Genro, or ruling oligarchy, maintains control despite expansion of suffrage to all makes • Poor working conditions and price increases caused unrest • Competition between ultranationalists who wanted a return to more traditional values and Marxists who wanted to improve the lives of workers
Japan and Economics • Development of Zaibatsus in which various aspects of manufacturing process were controlled by one enterprise • Need for raw materials and markets fueled Imperialism • US attempted to thwart growth by trying to keep the Pacific open for U.S. commercial activity • Washington Naval Conference allowed Open Door Policy and guaranteed China’s protection
Economics • Economies focused on agriculture and exporting raw materials • U.S. was major market and American companies often controlled industries • The governments in many countries in Latin America nationalized many of the industries to keep the revenue inside Latin America
Politics • Good Neighbor” policy attempted to minimize tensions which rejected U.S. military force in the region • Due to the political and economic instability caused by the Great Depression of the 1930’s authoritian governments rose in many countries
Politics • Military dictatorships and demagoguery were common • Juan Peron- Argentina • Getulio Vargas- Brazil • Cardenas in Mexico