I. Objectives Students are supposed to acquire a good knowledge of: · The history of British religion; · Churches, especially the Church of England, and the Church of Scotland; · British religion and politics & British religion and education; · Notable places of worship.
II. Focal Questions · What has British religious history been characterized by ? · What do you know about the structure of the Church of England ? · What does it mean by saying that the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian in policy ?
III. Procedures · Presentation by students — Focal Questions; · Lectures by the teacher; · Class discussion — Exploitation Activities; · Assignment for this chapter and the next chapter.
V. Contents 1. Related Names · Presbyterian:a member of a branch of the Christian Protestant Church that is the national Church of Scotland. · Episcopal: (of a Christian Church) that is governed by bishops. · Anglican: a member of the Church of England or of a Church connected with it in another country. · Kirk: a name often used for the official Church of Scotland. · diocese: a district for which a bishop is responsible.
2. A Brief Introduction of the British Religious History 3. Introduction of Churches 1) The Church of England 2) The Church of Scotland V. Contents
Canterbury Cathedral, Mother church of the Province of Canterbury and of the Anglican Communion worldwide Westminster Abbey V. Contents 4. Religion and History 5. Religion and Education 6. Notable Places of Worship 1) Cathedrals in the UK 2) Westminster Abbey
I. Objectives In this chapter we will learn about the ethnic composition of British people and its demographic features, the evolutionary process of English as a language, and the makeup of British society.
II. Focal Questions Why are the British people regarded as "mixed people"? What are the three main periods of English Language? How many classes are there in British society according to objective approach?
Procedures Presentation by Students – Focal questions Lectures by the teacher Class discussion – Exploitation Activities Assignment for the next chapter
V. Contents Ethnic composition
1)Before the Norman Conquest Iberians Celts Angles Saxons Jutes Scandinavians French Normans
2) After the Norman Conquest Jewish Lombard Dutch Flemish Gypsies Refugees from Europe
3) In the 20th century Refugees from Nazi occupied Europe and white immigrants from old Commonwealth countries people from non-white New Commonwealth nations groups of Americans, Australians, and Chinese Europeans Immigration from the South Asian
2. Demographic composition the 1086 Doomsday Book (最终税册) Census the Black Death pandemic (黑死病大流行)
1)Old English Period The period of Old English is from the year of 450 to the year of 1150 four dialects in Old English times: Northumbrian (诺森伯兰方言), Mercian (莫西亚方言), West Saxon, and Kentish (肯特方言) In general, the differences that one notices between Old English and Modern English concern spelling and pronunciation, the lexicon, and the grammar.
2)Middle English Period after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The dialect of English spoken in London had been the Standard English, which gave birth to (产生) the official language. French language also influenced the use of English. The main change from Old English to Middle English was in both its grammar and its vocabulary. The most distinctive change from Old English to Middle English was the decay (衰退) of inflectional renderings.
3)Modern English Period By the end of the 15th century, the English spoken in London had been accepted as a standard language in most parts of the country. In the year of 1755, Samuel Johnson compiled the first English dictionary The great shift from Middle English to Modern English was the shift of the vowel The quality of the English language was greatly improved by extensive borrowing The expansion of the British Empire helped facilitate (促进) the spread of English into many countries and places all over the world It is also likely that pidgin (洋泾浜的) and creole (克里奥语的) varieties of English will be increasingly widespread in those areas where English is not a first language
family background, main source of income, place of residence, cultural tastes and political affiliations (关系) were closely associated Traditionally, the British class system was divided into upper, middle and working classes According to an “objective” approach, British society is divided into occupational groups arranged in a class hierarchy
before the 18th century,four different nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) and their peoples Concepts of Britishness were more widely used in the 19th century In actual effect, the British identification was often equated with English norms because of England’s historical role and its preponderance within Britain. with Britain’s decline in modern times, the old concepts of England-centered Britishness have weakened. the contemporary British are a very diverse people with varying identities.
I. Objectives In this chapter we will look at the British way of life, including leisure activities, sporting activities, arts, mass media, social manners and etiquettes.
II. Focal Questions What are the common characters of the women’s magazines? What are the differences between broadsheets and tabloids? What is the origin of the Oxford-Cambridge University Boat Race? What are Shakespeare’s famous plays? What is the difference between Rugby League and Rugby Union?
V. Contents Leisure Activities
Tourism and Recreation They love the outdoors. They flock to seaside resorts on vacation. Several million vacationers visit Spain, France, and other countries. Some enjoy automobile or bicycle trips through the country. Spend much time in their gardens. 50% of the families in UK have a garden.
Holidays and Customs and their origins tell us what is important in a culture. Most holidays throughout the world provide opportunities for families and friends to get together to visit, eat, exchange good wishes and enjoy each other’s company and hospitality.
Religious Holidays Britain remains mainly a Christian nation, however many do not go to church to worship Many other religions Christian festivals are observed but adapted to fit needs of a secular society Non-Christians and Christians participate in activities for Christmas and Easter
CHRISTMAS December 25 Biggest and best loved holiday Schools, businesses, and offices close Celebration of birth of Jesus Christ-Christmas mass-worship service. Son of God to save the world from sin
CHRISTMAS CELEBRATION Exchange gifts and cards Holiday foods Decorating homes/workplace Christmas trees Christmas lights/ornaments
SPECIAL BRITISH CHRISTMAS TRADITIONS Christmas Pantomime-Panto a comical musical play based on traditional children’s story, with main character the “principal boy” played by a young woman Queen’s Christmas message/past year & hopes Boxing Day-day after Christmas/old custom for servants-now sales, food etc. most people don’t know why
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS Queen’s birthday Known as “Trooping the Colour” Second Saturday in June Buckingham Palace in London Like a National Day
SAINT PATRICKS DAY Northern Ireland Catholics Patron Saint of Ireland-St Patrick March 17 Tradition-drove out snakes or evil and used three leaf clover/shamrock to explain Christian Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) to Pagans Irish
HALLOWEEN Halloween – Oct. 31 Great feast of Pagan Celts Arrival of winter Some believe can commune with the dead Mischief Fortune-telling & masquerades
British meals mean different things at different times to different people. The first meal of the day is breakfast which is now often hurried and informal. Traditionally it is a hearty meal eaten in many homes throughout the country, particularly at weekend. The traditional English breakfast is a fried or grilled dish consisting of bacon, eggs and sausage， mushrooms, tomatoes, black pudding, and fried bread or potatoes.
In recent years a light breakfast , usually called continental breakfast has become popular in Britain. A light breakfast has no cooked dish and consists of fruit juice or cereal[`siәriә]谷类食品, and marmalade [`ma:mәleid]果酱 and coffee.
Lunch is a midday meal, usually eaten between 12:00 and 2:00pm. For those who have supper in the evening, it will usually be the main meal of the day. Dinner for lunch consists of meat, potatoes and other vegetables.