describe the differences and relation between the lithosphere and asthenosphere l.
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Describe the differences and relation between the lithosphere and asthenosphere. Name the three types of plate boundaries and the general characteristic of plate movement along each plate boundary. What is the magnetic field and how is it formed?. Plate Boundaries. Convergent Divergent

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Name the three types of plate boundaries and the general characteristic of plate movement along each plate boundary.

plate boundaries

Plate Boundaries

Convergent

Divergent

Transform

plate tectonics
Plate Tectonics
  • Explains the configuration of topographic features of the Earth- mountains, valleys, volcanoes, islands, oceanic trenches, faults
tectonic plates
Tectonic plates
  • Are composed of the lithosphere
  • Move as a coherent mass
  • May contain oceanic crust and continental crust
direction of movement
Direction of Movement
  • Perpendicular to mid-oceanic ridges
plate boundaries8
Plate Boundaries
  • Concentration of stored energy and ultimately release of energy
    • Production of hazards

Topographic features on the Earth’s surface reflects what is happening in the mantle.

convergent plate boundary
Magmatic arc

Oceanic crust subducts under continental crust

Melting occurs at about 100 miles

Hot more buoyant material rises

Convergent Plate Boundary
volcanic arc
Volcanic Arc
  • Oceanic and continental crust
  • Cascade Range, Andes, Alaska
  • Characteristics: large volcanoes; subduction zone; trench; oceanic crust subducts under continental crust
convergent plate boundary12
Convergent Plate Boundary
  • Map and cross-section views of the subduction zone
  • The oceanic Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the continental North American Plate
convergent plate boundary13
Two oceanic crusts

Oceanic crust subducts under opposing oceanic crust

Oldest oceanic crust subducts

Convergent Plate Boundary
island arc
Island Arc
  • Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, Caribbean, Aleutian Islands
convergent plate boundary15
Earthquakes trace the subducting slab to about 500 miles or 650 kilometersConvergent Plate Boundary

Gold dots represent earthquake hypocenters

convergent plate boundaries
Convergent Plate Boundaries
  • Two continental crusts
  • Neither subduct due to buoyancy of crusts
  • Mountains form
divergent plate boundary
Divergent Plate Boundary
  • Two plates move apart
  • Run through ocean basins
divergent plate boundaries
Divergent Plate Boundaries

Mid-oceanic ridges, transform faults and rift valleys, and the formation of the ocean floor are characteristics associated with divergent plate boundaries.

transform plate boundary21
Transform Plate Boundary
  • The tectonic plate pass by each other
  • Connect other plate boundaries
  • San Andreas Fault
extension pre divergent boundary
Extension-“Pre-divergent Boundary”

Continental crust begins to stretch due to tensional stress.

basin and range
Basin and Range
  • Continental crust begins to stretch due to convection within the asthenosphere
  • A series of mountains and valleys develop
  • Long Valley Caldera is located on the western most portion.
east africa rift zone
East Africa Rift Zone
  • An area of extension
  • Continental crust is beginning to pull-apart forming a rift valley
hot spots
HotSpots
  • Stationary plumes of hot material that initiate at the core/mantle interface
  • Hawaii: the plume is beneath oceanic crust
hot spots27
Hot Spots
  • Yellowstone is associated with a hot spot under continental crust
plate tectonics28
Plate Tectonics
  • The theory of plate tectonics is based on the evaluation of scientific evidence and observation- The Scientific Method
  • Continental Drift hypothesis
  • Seafloor Spreading hypothesis
sketch a cross section of a divergent plate boundary
Sketch a cross section of a divergent plate boundary.
  • Label with the following terms:
    • rift valley;
    • oceanic ridge;
    • oceanic crust;
    • location of melting and volcanism;
    • and arrows indicating direction of plate movement

.

sketch a cross section of a convergent plate boundary that contains an oceanic crust
Sketch a cross-section of a convergent plate boundary that contains an oceanic crust.
  • Label with the following terms:
    • Subduction zone
    • Trench
    • Area of melting
    • Area of volcanism
    • Arrows indicating direction of plate movement
name the landform associated with oceanic crust subducting under continental crust oceanic crust

Name the landform associated with oceanic crust subducting under continental crust. Oceanic crust?