Victoria Zadoyan Lisa Pontious Beverly Wilson Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)/circumcision
Female Genital Mutilation (Fgm) is…. “Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It has no health benefits and harms girls and women in many ways. “ WHO, 2011
The reasons for FGM are numerous and include enhancing ability for marriage, promoting fertility, a rite of passage into womanhood, identifying with cultural heritage, increasing male pleasure during intercourse, promoting hygiene, and may be aesthetically pleasing in some cultures. The pressure for female children and women to undergo the procedure is tremendous and women who defy cultural norms are often declared ineligible for marriage, banned from their communities, and ostracized. Burke, 2011 Why is Fgm Done?
Increasing Diversity of U.S. population • Parents living in U.S. with cultural background supporting FGM • Need for healthcare providers to understand care required for women with genital alterations • Cultural Competence • Alternatives to traditional procedures Why does this matter?
Recognition of increased incidence of • acute and chronic UTIs • occluding scar tissue • increased risk for infertility • increased risk for obstetrical complications, • pelvic infections • neuromas • PTSD Caring for the Woman with Fgm…
Recognition of increased risk for daughters of women with FGM • Difficulty executing preventive care procedures, such as Pap smears & bimanual exams • Cultural respect for women desiring reconstruction following childbirth • Caring for children recognized as potentially at risk for FGM • Offering acceptable alternative to FGM Caring for the Woman with Fgm…
Bashir, L. M. (1996). Female genital mutilation in the United States: An examination of criminal and asylum law. Journal of Gender & the Law, 4, p 415-454. Burke, E. (2011). Female genital mutilation: Applications of nursing theory for clinical care. The Nurse Practitioner, 36 (4), 45-50. Heitman, R. (2010). Female genital mutilation. Retrieved from www.members.tripod.com World Health Organization(2011). Female genital mutilation: Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en/index.html References