Introduction to Anatomy A Guided Tour of the Human Body
Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of the body and the relations between body parts. From the Greek: ana- Apart tomy- Cut What is Anatomy? http://www.countway.harvard.edu/archives/iotm/illustrations/dissection.gif
Gross Anatomy studies the large structures of the body. Microscopic Anatomy studies the very small structures of the body Size Matters
Physiology is the study of how the body and it’s parts work or function. From the Greek physio- nature ology- the study of What is Physiology?
Reasons to Learn about Anatomy You have a body. Your parts must work together. You like to cut stuff up. You enjoy learning what diseases and disorders there are. You figured the teacher would show some cool pictures of something nasty. http://www.autopsyvideo.com/images/autopsy_4.JPG
Careers in Anatomy http://www.thesoydailyclub.com/Research/k10107-1i.jpg http://www.uthscsa.edu/opa/issues/new33-27/images/emt1.jpg http://www.srgreenhill.co.uk/images/small/medical/112_67d_9-Dentists.jpg http://www.designltd.com/photographics/images/doctors.jpg
Careers in Anatomy http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/apetoman_leakeys.jpg http://www.hawkcentral.com/teams/football/2002/photos/122802doyle1.jpg http://www.adfs.state.al.us/images/ISD/clipart/me3a.jpg http://www.hhs.oregonstate.edu/images/EXSS-LabDupl.jpg http://www.timesunion.com/promo/careers/resources/medill2.jpg
William Harvey "All things, both argument and ocular demonstration, thus confirm that the blood passes through the lungs and heart by the force of he ventricles, and is driven thence and sent forth to all parts of the body. There it makes its way into the veins and pores of the flesh. It flows by the veins everywhere from the circumference to the centre, from the lesser to the greater veins, and by them is discharged into the vena cava and finally into the right auricle of the heart. The blood is sent in such quantity, in one direction, by the arteries, in the other direction by the veins, as cannot possibly be supplied by the ingested food. It is therefore necessary to conclude that the blood in the animals is impelled in a circle, and is in a state of ceaseless movement; that this is the act or function of the heart, which it performs by means of its pulse; and that is the sole and only end of movement and pulse of the heart."
The Uniqueness of Humans • What separates us from the other animals? • Not as much as we used to think. • Our biology is incredibly similar to other animals. • Our genes are 98% the same as Chimpanzees. • Other animals have culture and empathy and other “human” traits.
Levels of Organization A Look at How the Body is Organized
An Example of Organization http://webpages.csus.edu/~sac46084/eric_clapton_017.jpg http://www.parismtnsignco.com/guitar%20with%20wire.JPG http://www.behrenspeicher.de/english/web/band/band.jpg
Atoms are the building blocks for matter which join together to create molecules. The human body is made of trillions of trillions of atoms and uses specific molecules for energy and other purposes. Chemical Level http://staff.jccc.net/PDECELL/biochemistry/glucose.gif
All living things are composed of cells. Individual cells have a wide variety of shapes and sizes as well as specific functions Cellular Level
Tissues consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function. Found in more complex organisms. Tissues http://cellbio.utmb.edu/microanatomy/muscle/muscle12.jpg http://medinfo.ufl.edu/year1/histo/images/j25.jpg
A structure that contains two or more tissue types is an organ. Organs can perform complex or multiple functions. Organ http://digilander.libero.it/BodyMindCare/kapil/images/medi/more/horz/liver.jpg http://www.aic.cuhk.edu.hk/web8/Hi%20res/Heart.jpg
The organ system contains a group of organs that have a common function. All of the organ systems work together for the health and well being of the organism. Organ System http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/images/446/respiratorydetail.gif
The Human Organism The slides that follow will provide a brief overview of the eleven organ systems in the human body. Each organ system provides a specific task for the well-being of the human body. Each organ system will be covered in an individual unit throughout the year.
The external covering of the body, also known as the skin. Functions: Waterproofs Cushions deep tissues from injury Regulates body temperature Contains receptors to temperature, pressure and pain Integumentary System http://www.octc.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/images/Image191.gif
The bones, cartilages, and ligaments. Functions: Body support that allows the muscles to work. Protects vital organs Stores minerals Hematopoiesis Skeletal System
The muscles that allow the body to move. Function: Contract Muscular System http://www.ashlandschools.org/morgan_cottle/body/muscles.gif
Made of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors Function: Fast action control system Respond to external stimuli Nervous System http://www.faqs.org/health/images/uchr_02_img0126.jpg
Controls body activities by sending hormones into the blood stream. Body Functions controlled by endocrine system: Growth Reproduction Metabolism Endocrine System
The blood carriers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and removes waste through the veins. The heart pumps the blood throughout the body. Cardiovascular System http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/images/446/circulationgeneral.gif
Returns fluid leaked from bloodstream. Lymph Nodes cleans the blood and stores white blood cells. Lymphatic System http://www.healingdaily.com/exercise/lymphatic-system-benefits-from-rebounding.gif
Maintains the body’s supply of oxygen. Removes carbon dioxide from the body. Respiratory System http://www.byronsmith.ca/everest2000/gfx/ehb_respiratorysystem.gif
Breaks down food and delivers the products to the blood stream. Digestive System http://www.moondragon.org/images/digestivesystem.jpg
Removes nitrogen containing waste (urea) from the bloodstream. Maintains the body’s water and salt balance. Urinary System
Produces offspring Male Reproductive System produces sperm Female Reproductive System produces an ovum Reproductive System http://www.sisterzeus.com/vagi2.JPG
Take Your Best Guess! How long can someone live without: • Food • Oxygen • Water
Maintaining Life What You Need To Do To Survive
Maintaining Life Organ Systems do not work in isolation. Each system works for the health and well-being of the body.
Necessary Life Functions Maintaining Boundaries Movement Responsiveness Digestion Metabolism Excretion Reproduction Growth
Maintaining Boundaries Separates the inside from the outside. Each cell is surrounded by the plasma membrane. The body is surrounded by the integumentary system. Protects the body from: Drying out Harmful bacteria Heat and sunlight http://www.centralumc.org/Summer_2002/Bellyflop.jpg
Movement Includes the activities of the muscular system Running Jumping Swimming Occurs when blood, food and urine are transported through the body.
Responsiveness The ability to sense changes in the environment and the react to them. Also known as irritability.
Digestion The process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules. The cardiovascular system transports these molecules through the body. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/dayart/20030306/226school_lunch1.jpg
Metabolism All the chemical reactions that occur in the body cells. Controlled by the endocrine system. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/health/fitness/images/040120brazillian3.jpg
Excretion The removal of excreta (wastes) from the body. The digestive system removes indigestible food, or feces. The urinary system removes nitrogenous wastes, or urine.
Reproduction The production of offspring At the cellular level, a cell will divide to enhance growth or tissue repair. To create a new person, a sperm and egg are required. The reproductive system is controlled by the endocrine system. http://aactofloveadoptions.com/images/africanamericanbaby3.jpg
Growth An increase in size. http://www.giftvelocity.com/thumbs/child_growth_chart_child_height-chart_kid_growth_chart_m.jpg
Survival Needs The things you need to survive: Nutrients Oxygen Water Body Temperature Atmospheric Pressure
Nutrients Received by the diet. Gathers the chemicals used for energy and cell building. http://www.elibydesign.com/wellness/images/nutrition/pyramid.gif
Oxygen Required for the chemical reactions that release energy. Given to the body by the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. http://yoga-meditation.indiantravelportal.com/gifs/meditation-objective.jpg
Water Makes up 60-80% of body weight. Provides the fluid base for body secretion and excretions. Ingested in foods and liquids. Excreted through lungs, skin, and body excretions. http://www.sacregion511.org/bicycling/images/511_Bikepic_3.jpg
Body Temperature Maintained at 37 degrees C (or 98.6 degrees F). A lower body temperature causes the metabolism to slow down. A higher body temperature causes the metabolism to speed up. http://www.accesskent.com/Health/HealthDepartment/CD_Epid/images/Sick_Child.gif
Atmospheric Pressure The force exerted on the body by the weight of the air. The respiratory depends on air pressure during gas exchange. http://www.encyclopedie.fr/images/alveoli4.jpg
Moderation “I smoke in moderation, one cigar at a time.” –Mark Twain Each survival need must be present in appropriate amounts. Too much of a good thing can kill you!
Homeostasis Keeping You Comfortable
Homeostasis The Definition: The ability to maintain a stable internal environment. Homeo = same Stasis = standing still The external environment is constantly changing and your body must react. Body Temperature must be controlled Wastes must be removed
Homeostatic Control Systems The nervous and endocrine systems send messages throughout the body. The nervous system sends electrical signals through the nerves. The endocrine system sends hormones through the bloodstream. http://www.alongnaturestrail.com/images/nerve_cell.jpg http://www.becomehealthynow.com/images/organs/endocrine/adrenal_white_bh.jpg