introduction anatomy n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction Anatomy PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction Anatomy

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 34

Introduction Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 279 Views
  • Uploaded on

Introduction Anatomy. Azami PHD. Definition. Anatomy- From Greek “to cut open” Study of the structure of the body, either regionally or systematically Physiology – branch of biological science dealing with the function of organs and organ systems. History of Anatomy .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Introduction Anatomy' - duante


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
definition
Definition
  • Anatomy- From Greek “to cut open”
    • Study of the structure of the body, either regionally or systematically
  • Physiology – branch of biological science dealing with the function of organs and organ systems
history of anatomy
History of Anatomy
  • Probably began with early examinations of sacrifice victims.
  • First documented by Egyptians ~1600 BC. Egyptian anatomical papyrus showed organs (including blood vessels)
medicine during medieval times 5 th 15 th
Medicine during Medieval Times (5th -15th )
  • When Rome fell, little was done to advance the studies.
  • Cadavers were no longer used
  • Avicenna (ابن سینا یا پورسینا)
16 th century contributions
16th Century Contributions
  • Began to make drawings of dissections of executed cadavers
19 th century
19th Century
  • Anatomy Act of 1832 provided adequate supply of corpses
  • Gray’s Anatomy first published 1858
modern anatomy
Modern Anatomy
  • X-rays, CT scans, MRI
anatomy definition
Anatomy definition
  • A branch of morphology which deals with the structure of organisms.
  • Study of the structures of the body and their relationship to one another.
  • This is generally divided into:
    • Gross anatomy (that which can be seen with the naked eye)
    • Histology(microscopic anatomy & internal structure of cells)
    • Embryology (the developing organism within the uterus)
gross anatomy
Gross Anatomy
  • Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by organ system
  • Regional– all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)
  • Surface– study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
organ systems
Organ systems
  • Musculoskeletal (muscles, bones, joints)
  • Cardiovascular (heart, arteries and veins)
  • Respiratory (respiratory tract, lungs)
  • Digestive (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas)
  • Urinary (kidney, bladder)
  • Reproductive (male/female)
  • Nervous system
anatomical planes
Anatomical Planes
  • Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
  • Coronal or frontal– divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
  • Horizontal or transverse (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferiorparts
anatomical planes 1
Anatomical planes -1
  • Sagittal:Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
anatomical planes 2
Anatomical planes - 2
  • Coronal or frontal:divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
anatomical planes 3
Anatomical planes - 3
  • Horizontal or transverse (cross section) :divides the body into superior and inferior parts
locomotor system
Locomotor System
  • General
  • Skeleton
  • Muscles
  • Joints
movements
Movements

Adduction

  • Moving a body part towards the midline of the body

Abduction

  • Moving a body part away from the midline of the body
slide20

Movements

Prone

  • Lying face down

Pronation

Supine

  • Lying face upSupination
movements1
Movements

Flexion

  • Bending a joint or decreasing the angle between two bones

Extension

  • Straightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bones
slide23

Movements

Retraction

  • Moving a part backward

Protraction

  • Moving a part forward
slide24
اعمال دستگاه عضلانی
  • حرکت
  • حفظ موقعیت بدن
  • حفاظت از ارگان های داخلی
  • کنترل ورود و خروج
  • حفظ دمای بدن
slide30

متضاد و در خلاف جهت یکدیگر

هم نيروزايي و هم جهت

Antagonistic muscles

Synergistic muscles

slide31
نکته
  • بدن انسان حدود 700 عضله دارد که دارای نام هستند.
  • از روی نام عضله می توان به شکل، جایگاه، ابتدا و انتها، عملکردو... پی برد.
slide33

Joint Cartilage

Since this cartilage does not contain blood vessels, it must receive nutrients by diffusion from the synovial fluid. Optimal nutrition requires regular movement (loading and unloading) of the cartilage, so that the synovia is pressed into the cartilage.Lackof movement and unphysiologically high tensions lead to degenerative changes (osteoarthritis) in joint cartilage

Joint Capsule and Synovial Fluid

When a joint is immobilized over a prolonged period of time, the connective tissue fibers shorten, the joint capsule shrinks, and the mobility of the joint can be severely compromised (joint contracture).