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Introduction Anatomy. Azami PHD. Definition. Anatomy- From Greek “to cut open” Study of the structure of the body, either regionally or systematically Physiology – branch of biological science dealing with the function of organs and organ systems. History of Anatomy .

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  • Anatomy- From Greek “to cut open”
    • Study of the structure of the body, either regionally or systematically
  • Physiology – branch of biological science dealing with the function of organs and organ systems
history of anatomy
History of Anatomy
  • Probably began with early examinations of sacrifice victims.
  • First documented by Egyptians ~1600 BC. Egyptian anatomical papyrus showed organs (including blood vessels)
medicine during medieval times 5 th 15 th
Medicine during Medieval Times (5th -15th )
  • When Rome fell, little was done to advance the studies.
  • Cadavers were no longer used
  • Avicenna (ابن سینا یا پورسینا)
16 th century contributions
16th Century Contributions
  • Began to make drawings of dissections of executed cadavers
19 th century
19th Century
  • Anatomy Act of 1832 provided adequate supply of corpses
  • Gray’s Anatomy first published 1858
modern anatomy
Modern Anatomy
  • X-rays, CT scans, MRI
anatomy definition
Anatomy definition
  • A branch of morphology which deals with the structure of organisms.
  • Study of the structures of the body and their relationship to one another.
  • This is generally divided into:
    • Gross anatomy (that which can be seen with the naked eye)
    • Histology(microscopic anatomy & internal structure of cells)
    • Embryology (the developing organism within the uterus)
gross anatomy
Gross Anatomy
  • Systemic – gross anatomy of the body studied by organ system
  • Regional– all structures in one part of the body (such as the abdomen or leg)
  • Surface– study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin
organ systems
Organ systems
  • Musculoskeletal (muscles, bones, joints)
  • Cardiovascular (heart, arteries and veins)
  • Respiratory (respiratory tract, lungs)
  • Digestive (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas)
  • Urinary (kidney, bladder)
  • Reproductive (male/female)
  • Nervous system
anatomical planes
Anatomical Planes
  • Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
  • Coronal or frontal– divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
  • Horizontal or transverse (cross section) – divides the body into superior and inferiorparts
anatomical planes 1
Anatomical planes -1
  • Sagittal:Sagittal – divides the body into right and left parts
anatomical planes 2
Anatomical planes - 2
  • Coronal or frontal:divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
anatomical planes 3
Anatomical planes - 3
  • Horizontal or transverse (cross section) :divides the body into superior and inferior parts
locomotor system
Locomotor System
  • General
  • Skeleton
  • Muscles
  • Joints


  • Moving a body part towards the midline of the body


  • Moving a body part away from the midline of the body



  • Lying face down



  • Lying face upSupination


  • Bending a joint or decreasing the angle between two bones


  • Straightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bones



  • Moving a part backward


  • Moving a part forward
اعمال دستگاه عضلانی
  • حرکت
  • حفظ موقعیت بدن
  • حفاظت از ارگان های داخلی
  • کنترل ورود و خروج
  • حفظ دمای بدن

متضاد و در خلاف جهت یکدیگر

هم نيروزايي و هم جهت

Antagonistic muscles

Synergistic muscles

  • بدن انسان حدود 700 عضله دارد که دارای نام هستند.
  • از روی نام عضله می توان به شکل، جایگاه، ابتدا و انتها، عملکردو... پی برد.

Joint Cartilage

Since this cartilage does not contain blood vessels, it must receive nutrients by diffusion from the synovial fluid. Optimal nutrition requires regular movement (loading and unloading) of the cartilage, so that the synovia is pressed into the cartilage.Lackof movement and unphysiologically high tensions lead to degenerative changes (osteoarthritis) in joint cartilage

Joint Capsule and Synovial Fluid

When a joint is immobilized over a prolonged period of time, the connective tissue fibers shorten, the joint capsule shrinks, and the mobility of the joint can be severely compromised (joint contracture).