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Organic Chemistry. Chemistry 2013-2014. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds. Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.

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Organic chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Chemistry 2013-2014


Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds
Organic chemistryis the chemistry of carbon compounds

  • Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms. This allows it to make millions of different compounds.

  • Carbon can form single, double and triple bonds.


A hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms
A hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms.

Saturated hydrocarbons contain no double or triple bonds.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double and/or triple bonds.

Can be straight or branched.

Boiling point increases as number of carbon atoms increases.


Hydrocarbons alkanes
Hydrocarbons: Alkanes carbon atoms

  • Definition/Functional group: single bonds only; saturated; nonpolar

  • Suffix: -ane

  • Examples

    • Methane Ethane


Hydrocarbons alkenes
Hydrocarbons: Alkenes carbon atoms

Definition/Functional group: at least one double bond; unsaturated; nonpolar

Suffix: -ene

Example: ethene, C2H4


Hydrocarbons alkynes
Hydrocarbons: Alkynes carbon atoms

  • Definition/Functional group: at least one triple bond; unsaturated; nonpolar

  • Suffix: -yne

  • Examples

    • Ethyne, C2H2Butyne, C4H6


Benzene rings
Benzene Rings carbon atoms

  • Definition/Functional group: contain at least one benzene ring, often with other groups added (“substituted” for hydrogen). Benzene exists as a resonance structure. It is also a carcinogen.

  • Prefix: Benz-

  • Examples

    • BenzeneBenzaldehyde


Alcohols

Note: not all alcohols are safe to drink (ethanol is the “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

Alcohols

  • Definition/Functional group: contain an –OH group, called a “hydroxyl” group.

  • Suffix: -ol

  • Examples

    • Methanol Ethanol Propanol


Aldehydes
Aldehydes “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

  • Definition/Functional group: contain an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom at the end of a hydrocarbon chain.

  • Suffix: -anal

  • Examples: Methanal, CH2O Ethanal, C2H4O


Ketones
Ketones “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

  • Definition/Functional group: contain an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom NOT at the end of a hydrocarbon chain.

  • Suffix: -none

  • Examples

    • Propanone, C3H6O


Ethers
Ethers “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

  • Definition/Functional group: a hydrocarbon chain in which one of the links is an oxygen atom, bonded to a carbon atom on either side.

  • Suffix: -ether

  • Examples


Esters
Esters “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

  • Definition/Functional group: a hydrocarbon where one carbon atom is bonded to another carbon and two oxygen atoms, one through a single bond and one through a double bond. That sounds pretty confusing, but esters are easy to recognize. They all have the same basic shape as the picture above, where the letter “R” means carbon atoms or other “organic” groups.

  • Suffix: -ate

  • Examples


Cyclic alkanes
Cyclic Alkanes “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

Definition/Functional group: these are alkanes that are cyclic, meaning that the ends are connected to form a regular geometric shape. Ex. triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, etc. Benzene is not a cyclic alkane due to its double bonds and resonance.

Prefix: Cyclo-

Examples: Cyclopropane, C3H6Cyclobutane, C4H8


Nomenclature
Nomenclature “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!

We’re going to focus on naming the simplest kinds of organic molecules—alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, and aldehydes.

However, you will have to be able to classify the names and structures of each type of organic molecule in these notes, or to pick a name from a list that most closely fits a structure.


Prefixes stand for number of carbon atoms in chain
Prefixes (stand for number of carbon atoms in chain “alcohol” in all alcoholic beverages). The “alcohol” family is large and its members have many properties. For example, methanol is highly toxic!):


What type of organic molecules are these prefixes and suffixes used for
What type of organic molecules are these prefixes and suffixes used for?

Alkene

Alcohol

Ester

Benzene ring

Ketone

Alkane


What kind of prefix or suffix matches each of these structures
What kind of prefix or suffix matches each of these structures?

-none

-yne

Cycl0-

-ane

Benz-

-ane


To determine the name of an organic molecule, first classify it by type. Then count the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

For example, the following structure has one double bond, so its suffix is –ene. There are six carbon atoms in the chain, so its root is hex-. The name of this structure is hexene.


Prop- it by

Propene

-ene

Cyclo-

-hept-

-ane

Cycloheptane

Pent-

-yne

Pentyne


Propanal it by

Prop-

-anal

Pent-

-ol

Pentanol


Draw the following
Draw the following it by :

PropanolCyclobutanePentanal


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