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what are hormones, and what are they good for?. substances produced in one part of the body that are carried in the bloodstream and have effects on other parts of the body. a way for one part of the body to communicate with other parts of the body

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

what are hormones, and what

are they good for?

substances produced in one part of the body that are carried in the

bloodstream and have effects on other parts of the body

a way for one part of the body to communicate with other parts of the body

a way for the body to coordinate responses in multiple parts of the body at the same time

a way to control a process that needs to vary over time

slide2

endocrine system

body function

hormone(s)

(examples)

digestion, basal metabolism, etc.

insulin, noradrenaline, thyroid hormone,

corticosteroids

water and salt regulation, excretion, etc.

vasopressin, prolactin

calcium metabolism

calcitonin

growth and development

growth hormone, thyroid hormone

reproductive organs & reproduction

FSH, LH, estrogen, prolactin, testosterone

progesterone

slide3

types of hormones

steroid hormones - derived from cholesterol

peptide hormones - transcribed from genes (e.g. insulin, melatonin, adrenaline)

modified amino acids(e.g. thyroid hormone)

slide4

control of levels of hormones

1) via both positive and negative control (e.g. oxytocin)

2) negative feedback systems

e.g. CSH - ACTH - corticosteroid

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - thyroid hormone

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - sex steroids

slide5

some endocrine glands

(and examples of hormones produced there)

pituitary gland (in the brain)

(thyroid stimulating hormone, growth hormone, prolactin)

thyroid (in the throat)

(thyroid hormones)

adrenal (on top of the kidney)

(aldosterone, corticosteroids)

pancreas (accessory digestive organ)

(insulin, glucagon)

kidney

(erythropoietin)

reproductive (ovaries/testes)

(LH, FSH, sex steroids)

Kidney

training.seer.cancer.gov

slide6

an example: the stress response ("flight or fight")

and corticosteroids

a stressful situation causes release of these steroids from the adrenal gland (on the kidney)

the hormone causes a rise in the levels of glucose in the blood. what for??

The Lapland longspur, Calcarius lapponicus, in Thule, Alaska

short, dangerous breeding season in harsh conditions

these birds reduce their stress response during breeding

Dr. John Wingfield

University of Washington

slide7

release of corticosteroids under stress involves a few steps

1. corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is released from neurons in the brain

2. that causes the release of corticotropin (ACTH) in the pituitary gland of the brain; ACTH then enters the bloodstream

3. when ACTH reaches the adrenal gland on the kidney, corticosteroid is released, causing the stress reponse

4. corticosteroids then negatively feedback on the brain, shutting down CRH and ACTH production

neurons in the brain

+

CRH

pituitary

gland

+

ACTH

cortico-

steroids

adrenal

gland

stress response

slide8

researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Germany

bred a mouse that was mutant for CRH to study the role of corticosteroids in the stress response

they took these mutant mice and compared them to normal mice under a variety of lab tests

they also wanted to test the relationship between stress and alcohol withdrawal

they compared activity patterns in an "open field test", and also their reponse to a stressful situation (light/dark box test)

Small Animal Behavior Core Laboratory

Medical College of Georgia

slide9

"open field test"

Timplet al. Nature Genetics 1998

slide10

light/dark box test

Timplet al. Nature Genetics 1998

slide11

light/dark box test

Timplet al. Nature Genetics 1998

slide12

light/dark box test

Timplet al. Nature Genetics 1998

slide13

Does stress impair memory? In these experiments

normal mice were taught to find a submerged platform

in a tank of cloudy water

picture from: Paul Kenyon

University of Plymouth, UK

de Quervain et al. Nature 1998

slide14

mice under different conditions of stress were

then tested for their ability to remember where

the platform was. This is how they judged the

mice's response:

picture from: Paul Kenyon

University of Plymouth, UK

de Quervain et al. Nature 1998

slide15

exposure to stress 2 minutes and 4 hours before a test

did not effect the mice's memory, but exposure to stress

30 minutes before an exam caused a temporary memory loss!!

picture from: Paul Kenyon

University of Plymouth, UK

de Quervain et al. Nature 1998

slide16

injection of hormone in humans has a similar effect!

corticosteroid, 25 mg

new words introduced .........24 hours before test... ...24 hours before test......24 hours before test

injection of corticosteroid.....1 hour before test...........1 hour before new ........ just after new

or placebo words introduced words introduced

de Quervain et al. Nature Neuroscience 2000