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Caution! More Than Good Teaching

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  1. Caution! More Than Good Teaching Much will appear to be good teaching. But focused reading and writing instruction for English language requires good teaching and more. Good teaching for ELLs will specifically target individual academic, language, and cultural needs.

  2. Overhead/Slide 1.1 Knowledge Goals for Unit 1 • Participants will recognize the connections between language and literacy development and what it means for English language learners. • Participants will understand the complexities of factors that impact language and literacy development for English language learners. • Participants will discuss and understand differences between the language and literacy skills of beginning and intermediate English language learners. p. 25

  3. Quick Write What do you think are the important elements of teaching language and literacy to ELL students? An important element for teaching language and literacy to ELL students is …. I think __________ is an important element of teaching language and literacy to ELL students.

  4. Paragraph Frame There are several important elements of teaching language and literacy to English language learners. First, you must provide _________________. Second, teachers _______________________________. Third, _________________________ ______________________________. Finally, these elements in conjunction will _______________________________.

  5. Overhead/Slide 1.2 Key Concept: Literacy and Bilingualism The curriculum for the training is based on the framework developed by María Estela Brisk and Margaret Harrington (2007) in their book Literacy and Bilingualism: A handbook for ALL Teachers. According to these authors, teaching literacy to ELL students requires knowledge about: • the development of literacy for bilingual students • the significance of being bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural • the factors affecting literacy development • the knowledge needed for reading and writing p. 26

  6. Key Concept: Language Subsystems Overhead/Slide 1.3 PRAGMATICS & DISCOURSE: sociolinguistic rules governing language use in communicative context SEMANTICS: linguistic meanings of words and sentences PHONOLOGY: the sound system of a language MORPHOLOGY: rules of word formation SYNTAX & GRAMMAR: rules of word order in sentence Formation p. 27

  7. Overhead/Slide 1.4 Key Concept: Relationship among Written and Oral Language PRODUCTIVE LANGUAGE USE SPEAKING WRITING DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORAL AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE LISTENING READING RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE USE p. 28

  8. Overhead/Slide 1.5 Key Concept: Language and Literacy Teaching The curriculum presented in this training reflects the view that effective classrooms for ELL students incorporate a holistic approach to language and literacy development. Based on this approach, instruction should integrate different areas of language and literacy knowledge. “Teachers should: • Develop reading and writing simultaneously with speaking and listening skills in the second language. • Teach the English language in the context of literacy development. • Develop literacy while developing content knowledge” Brisk & Harrington, 2007, p.25 p. 29

  9. Overhead/Slide 1.6 Connecting Language, Literacy and Content Knowledge: Talking Points • Language and literacy learning are thoroughly connected, and enhancing language development is key to ensure ELLs’ success as readers and writers. • The research on English language learners points out that teachers need to focus on developing oral language skills by providing rich and engaging language environments while at the same time focusing on building literacy skills. • Instruction should include a focus on language and literacy skills; and this focus should be part of all teaching including teaching in the different content areas. p. 30

  10. Overhead/Slide 1.7 Examination of ELL Profiles Concept Development: Participants will work in small groups to explore the diversity of skills and factors that influence ELLs’ language and literacy development through the analysis and discussion of diverse profiles. Key Questions for Activity: • What are some of the individual and contextual factors that can impact the language and literacy development of these students? • What are some of the skills, strengths, needs, and challenges that these students bring to developing language and literacy skills in English? • What would you say is the level of oral, reading, and writing proficiency for these students? p. 31-36

  11. ELL Profiles Carlos, page 31 Chen, page 32 Solange, page 34 Adriana, page 35 Activity begins on page 37-40.

  12. Overhead/Slide 1.8 Examination of ELL Profiles: Talking Points • Importance of a sociocultural perspective of language and literacy development to consider individual and contextual factors. • ELL students display a range of different skills and needs in their oral language skills, reading, and writing abilities. • Intermediate ELL learners are able to display a number of important skills related to their language and literacy abilities. Nevertheless, their abilities (phonology, semantics, and syntax) are still developing.

  13. Knowledge Goals Unit 2 Participants will identify the skills and knowledge a reader uses to comprehend text. p. 47

  14. The Marlup The marlup was poving his kump. Parmily a narghorped some whev in his kump. “Why did vumphorpwhev in mhfrinklekump?” the marlupjufd the narg. “Er’mmuvvilytrungy,” the narggrupped. “Erheshedvumpnorpledwhev in your kump. Do vumppove your kumpfrinkle?” Source: Goodman, K. (1996). Nonsense texts to illustrate the three cue systems: ‘A mardsengiberter for farfie,’ ‘gloopy and blit,’ and ‘the marlup.’ In Whitemore, K. & Goodman, Y. (Eds.), Whole language voices in teacher education (pp. 138-140). York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Overhead/Slide 2.1 p. 48

  15. Comprehension Questions: The Marlup Overhead/Slide 2.2 What did the narg horp in the marlup’s kump? What did the marlup jufd the narg? Was the narg trungy? How does the marlup pove his kump? How would you feel if your narg horped in your marlup’s kump? Source: Goodman, K. (1996). Nonsense texts to illustrate the three cue systems: ‘A mardsen giberter for farfie,’ ‘gloopy and blit,’ and ‘the marlup.’ In Whitemore, K. & Goodman, Y. (Eds.), Whole language voices in teacher education (pp. 138-140). York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. p. 48-49

  16. Answers to Comprehension Questions: The Marlup Overhead/Slide 2.3 What did the narg horp in the marlup’s kump? The narg horped some whev in the Marlup’s kump. What did the marlup juf the narg? The marlup jufd the narg, “Why did vump horp whev in mh frinkle kump?” Was the narg trungy? The narg was muvvily trungy. How does the marlup pove his kump? The marlup (probably) poves his kump finkle. How would you feel if your narg horped in your marlup’s kump? (Can’t actually answer this question.)

  17. The Marlup (Overview of Reflection Questions 1-4) Overhead/Slide 2.4 What were you able to do? Why? What couldn’t you do? Why? What role did your English proficiency play in your ability to read this passage aloud and answer the questions? What role did your familiarity with American schooling play in your ability to read the passage and answer the questions? p. 50-53

  18. Responses to The Marlup Reflection Question 1 Overhead/Slide 2.5 p. 50

  19. Response to The Marlup Reflection Question 2 Overhead/Slide 2.6 p. 51

  20. The Marlup Reflection Question 3 Overhead/Slide 2.7 p. 52

  21. The Marlup Reflection Question 4 Overhead/Slide 2.8 p. 53

  22. Crosswalk Activity - Marlup to Reading Process Overhead/Slide 2.9

  23. Crosswalk Activity cont’d -Marlup to Reading Process Overhead/Slide 2.10

  24. The Reading Process in English Overhead/Slide 2.12 Prerequisites to Reading English 1. Concepts About Print 2. Alphabetic Recognition 3. Oral Language Proficiency Background Knowledge Prior experience Conceptual knowledge Cultural knowledge Word Recognition and Fluency Phonological awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Breadth Depth - Morphology - Semantic relations Language structure Syntax Grammar Engagement Authentic purpose Relevance Process Knowledge: Strategy Use p. 55 Making Meaning from Text: Comprehension

  25. The Reading Process in English Overhead/Slide 2.11 Prerequisites to Reading English 1.2.3.

  26. Implications for English Language Learners Overhead/Slide 2.13

  27. The Reading Process in English Overhead/Slide 2.12 Prerequisites to Reading English 1. Concepts About Print 2. Alphabetic Recognition 3. Oral Language Proficiency Background Knowledge Prior experience Conceptual knowledge Cultural knowledge Word Recognition and Fluency Phonological awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Breadth Depth - Morphology - Semantic relations Language structure Syntax Grammar Engagement Authentic purpose Relevance Process Knowledge: Strategy Use p. 55 Making Meaning from Text: Comprehension

  28. Knowledge Goals Participants will understand the critical role of background knowledge in the development of literacy for ELLs. Participants will understand the cultural, conceptual, linguistic and literacy-related features of background knowledge that affect ELLs’ comprehension of text. Through the use of the KWL strategy and Carousel Brainstorming participants will explore ways to Discover the background knowledge of their ELLs Connect English literacy instruction to the background knowledge of their ELLs where appropriate. p. 58

  29. Mystery Reading Passage • You are an ELL in a fourth grade reading class. • Your teacher has pointed out the meaning of several “tricky words’ and directed you to figure out others through the strategy of using context clues. Nevertheless, you are struggling. • Listen carefully to the passage. • What do you think the topic is? • What principle about reading can you infer?

  30. Mystery Passage With hocked gems financing him Our here bravely defied all scornful laughter That tied to deceive his scheme. An egg, not a table typify an unexplored plant. Now three sturdy sisters sought proof Forging sometimes through calm vastness Yet, more often over turbulent peaks and valleys. Days became weeks as many doubters spread fearful rumors about the edge. At last, welcome winged creatures appeared Signifying momentous success. Dooling and Lachman, 1972, p. 216-222, quoted in Tama and McClain. (1998) Guided Reading and Writing in the Content Areas: Practical Strategies. Dubuque, Iowa.

  31. KWL Graphic Organizer Overhead/Slide 2.A.1 p. 59

  32. Carousel Brainstorming Activity You will be reviewing a number of classroom tasks. For each task, answer the following questions: What background knowledge is required to complete the task? Think about the student in the profile you studied in Unit 1. How would his/her background knowledge affect the way in which he or she could complete the task? Is this an effective lesson/activity for ELLs? Could it be modified to be more effective? If so how? p. 60

  33. Background Knowledge and Reading “Research into reading indicates that students use past experiences and background knowledge to make sense out of unfamiliar text. For this reason, ELLs have difficulty with texts that are culturally unknown to them, contain difficult vocabulary and complex themes, or use archaic syntax” (Anstrom, 1998). “Prior knowledge enables a person to read between and beyond the lines. Since what is actually printed on the page is never fully explicit but only suggested, readers must use personal knowledge to fill in the gaps and the integrate different pieces of information in the message” (Giacomo 1999). Overhead/Slide 2.A.2

  34. Building Background Knowledge Based on the work of Christen & Murphy (1991), Peregoy & Boyle (2008) outline three kinds of interventions to consider when readers lack the background knowledge required to comprehend text: 1. Pre-teach vocabulary (more to come in Module C) 2. Provide experiences a. Hands-on activities b. Realia and visuals c. Videos d. Web-based interactive experiences e. Etc. 3. Introduce a conceptual framework a. Graphic organizers b. Outlines Overhead/Slide 2.A.3

  35. Good for Developing Language: Brainstorming for Life Cycle of the Butterfly What do they eat? Live in grassy areas and gardens Don’t bite Quiet Make cocoons Have wings How long do they live? Can fly Come from caterpillars Do they come from eggs? Overhead/Slide 2.A.4 Butterflies

  36. Better for Developing Language: KWL Graphic Organizer for Life Cycle of the Butterfly Overhead/Slide 2.A.5

  37. Even Better for Developing Language:K-W-L with Categorization for Life Cycle of the Butterfly Know Want to Know Learned What they look like Have wings What they do Can fly Don’t bite Make cocoons What do they eat? Where they live Live in grassy areas and gardens How they grow Come from caterpillars Do they lay eggs? How long do they live? Overhead/Slide 2.A.6

  38. Best for Developing Language:K-W-L with Categorization and Academic Languagefor Life Cycle of the Butterfly Overhead/Slide 2.A.7 Know Want to Know Learned What they look like Physical Characteristics Have wings What they do Behavior Can fly Don’t bite Make cocoons What do they eat? Where they live Habitat Live in grassy areas and gardens How they grow Life Cycle Come from caterpillars Do they lay eggs? How long do they live?

  39. KWL with Categorization Review your KWL chart. Reflect on the KWL with Categorization Strategy in which you learned how “knowledge” reflected in the KWL chart could be categorized and labeled. Create in a small group a new KWL chart that provides categorization. p. 61

  40. Module B: The Role of Word Recognition Skills and Fluency in ELLs’ Comprehension of Text

  41. The Reading Process in English Overhead/Slide 2.12 Prerequisites to Reading English 1. Concepts About Print 2. Alphabetic Recognition 3. Oral Language Proficiency Background Knowledge Prior experience Conceptual knowledge Cultural knowledge Word Recognition and Fluency Phonological awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Breadth Depth - Morphology - Semantic relations Language structure Syntax Grammar Engagement Authentic purpose Relevance Process Knowledge: Strategy Use p. 63 Making Meaning from Text: Comprehension

  42. Knowledge Goals Participants will Review their knowledge about phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency instruction. Learn about the findings regarding instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency instruction for ELLs. Examine their current practices for instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics and fluency in order to and begin to explore instructional modifications that may help to enhance the effectiveness of such instruction in promoting comprehension. p. 66

  43. Word Recognition and Fluency Overhead/Slide 2.B.1 p. 63

  44. Word Recognition and FluencyWhat Does the Research Say? Part 1 Overhead/Slide 2.B.2 National Reading Panel and National Literacy Panel

  45. Word Recognition and FluencyWhat Does the Research Say? Part 2 Overhead/Slide 2.B.3 National Reading Panel and National Literacy Panel

  46. Cautions and things to consider (Part 1): The studies “yielded results that are largely consistent with the findings for native-speaking populations. Although these results are insufficient to prove that the same instructional routines found to benefit native speakers are equally effective with English language learners, they in no way contradict this” (Fitzgerald, 1995a, 1995b in August et al., 2008, p. 145). Overhead/Slide 2.B.4

  47. Cautions and things to consider (Part 2): “When comprehension was included, the studies were less likely to find benefits from the instruction. Also when reading improvements were observed, they were less pronounced if reading comprehension was included in the battery of measurements. Overall the effects observed in these studies were somewhat smaller that those reported for the comparable National Reading Panel studies” (August et al., 2008, pp. 145-146, emphasis added). Overhead/Slide 2.B.5