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The study of word origins. Etymology. Where do the words we use come from? . English is a blend of words from many other languages These words made their way into the English language in many ways Occupation by other countries/cultures English occupation of other countries/cultures

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where do the words we use come from
Where do the words we use come from?
  • English is a blend of words from many other languages
  • These words made their way into the English language in many ways
  • Occupation by other countries/cultures
  • English occupation of other countries/cultures
  • Brought by immigrants
  • Cultural trends and fashions

The English language is always changing!

the mediterranean sea
The Mediterranean Sea

Med = middle

Terr = land

The Mediterranean Sea is in the middle of the land where western cultures developed.

The earliest western cultures were Greek and Roman.

greek language the first western written language

477 BC – 149 BC

Greek LanguageThe first western written language.

Alexander the Great was the Greek leader responsible for the spread of the Greek Empire.

The Greeks had an empire that included the lands bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Persia, and Egypt. The Greek language and culture spread throughout this region.

slide6

Roman Influence

Latin was the language spoken in ancient Rome.

When the Romans conquered territories—including most of Europe—they brought their language to those territories. That is why there are so many words in our language that have Latin roots.

the romance languages
The Romance Languages

LATIN (Ancient Rome)‏

Italian

French

Spanish

Portuguese

how latin words got into english language
How Latin words got into English Language

The Roman Empire

expanded into

Britain, bringing Latin

Latin words found

their way into the

Anglo-Saxon language

of the people in

Ancient Britain

how latin words got into english language11
How Latin words got into English Language

The Roman Empire

expanded into

Britain, bringing Latin

Latin words found

their way into the

Anglo-Saxon language

of the people in

Ancient Britain

For Example:

Latin word

“stratum”

means

“layered road”

how latin words got into english language12
How Latin words got into English Language

The Roman Empire

expanded into

Britain, bringing Latin

Latin words found

their way into the

Anglo-Saxon language

of the people in

Ancient Britain

For Example:

“Stratum”

became “straets”

in Anglo-Saxon

Latin word

“stratum”

means

“layered road”

how latin words got into english language13
How Latin words got into English Language

The Roman Empire

expanded into

Britain, bringing Latin

Latin words found

their way into the

Anglo-Saxon language

of the people in

Ancient Britain

For Example:

“Stratum”

became “straets”

in Anglo-Saxon

Latin word

“stratum”

means

“layered road”

Now called

“streets” in

modern English

how latin words got into english language14
How Latin words got into English Language

The Roman Empire

expanded into

Britain, bringing Latin

Latin words found

their way into the

Anglo-Saxon language

of the people in

Ancient Britain

For Example:

“Stratum”

became “straets”

in Anglo-Saxon

Latin word

“stratum”

means

“layered road”

Now called

“streets” in

modern English

Miles of streets and roads were created.

Mile is from the Latin word mille, which means 1,000.

The Roman mile was measured as 1,000 paces.

the english language
The English Language

This is how English as we know it today evolved over the centuries, influenced by many other European languages.

european invasions of britain
European Invasions of Britain

Anglians from the area that is now the Netherlands invaded in 550 AD.

Vikings from Scandinavia invaded in 875 AD.

Finally, the Normans from northern France invaded in 1066 AD. English language was banned by the Normans.

All of these invaders brought their languages, which influenced the English language. These influences can be traced through etymology.

slide17

Influence of the Catholic Church

1 AD – 1950’s

The Catholic Church was the official religion in all of Europe until the 1500’s.

The official language of the Catholic Church was Latin. So, no matter what country, all services in the Catholic Church were spoken in Latin. All priests and church officials spoke Latin.

renaissance influence

1400’s- 1500’s

Renaissance Influence

Renaissance = Rebirth

  • During the Renaissance, educated people in Europe became interested in Ancient Greece.
  • It was a time of expansion of knowledge in the areas of science, medicine, art and architecture.
  • This is how many Greek word roots made their way into the English language, especially in these subject areas.
the influence continues today
The Influence Continues Today

Our language continues to show influences from the Greek language, especially in the area of science.

Latin continued to be a universally understood language among the educated of Europe until the 1800’s.

The Catholic Church continued to use Latin until the 1950’s.

england becomes the invader 1600 1900
England Becomes the Invader1600 - 1900

The stars indicate areas that were once colonies of Britain, and where English was (and still is) spoken.

why should you learn word roots
Why Should YOU Learn Word Roots?
  • You will recognize word chunks in unfamiliar words and be able to narrow down the possible meaning of the word
  • It will help you with vocabulary in many subject areas
  • You will be better able to pronounce unfamiliar words
  • You will become a better speller
  • Since many languages have common roots to Latin and Greek, it makes learning a foreign language easier
some common roots
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

some common roots23
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

some common roots24
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

some common roots25
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

orb = circle

some common roots26
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

orb = circle

pop = people

some common roots27
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

orb = circle

pop = people

struct = build

some common roots28
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

orb = circle

pop = people

struct = build

terr = land

some common roots29
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

orb = circle

pop = people

struct = build

terr = land

alt = high

some common roots30
Some Common Roots

Can you think of words that contain these roots?

ortho = straight

dyna = power

ann = year

orb = circle

pop = people

struct = build

terr = land

alt = high

reg = rule

dom = rule