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Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System

Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System

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Chapter 15 Cardiovascular System

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  1. Chapter 15Cardiovascular System • heart • blood vessels • Average Size of Heart • cm long • cm wide 15-2

  2. Location of Heart • posterior to sternum • medial to lungs • anterior to vertebral column 15-3

  3. Coverings of Heart 15-4

  4. Wall of Heart • Three layers • forms protective inner lining • cardiac muscle • contracts to pump blood • serous membrane • protective covering • contains capillaries and nerve fibers 15-5

  5. Heart Chambers • Right Atrium • inferior vena cava • superior vena cava • Left Atrium • Right Ventricle • Left Ventricle 15-6

  6. Heart Valves • Tricuspid Valve • right A-V valve • Bicuspid Valve • left A-V valve • Aortic Valve • semilunar valve • Pulmonary Valve • semilunar valve 15-7

  7. Coronal Sections of Heart 15-8

  8. Heart Valves Tricuspid Valve Pulmonary and Aortic Valve 15-9

  9. Skeleton of Heart • fibrous rings to which the heart valves are attached 15-10

  10. Path of Blood Through the Heart Pumps your blood 15-11

  11. Path of BloodThrough the Heart 15-12

  12. Blood Supply to Heart 15-14

  13. Angiogram of Coronary Arteries 15-15

  14. Cardiac Cycle • Atrial Systole/Ventricular Diastole • remaining 30% of blood pushed into ventricles • ventricles relaxed • Ventricular Systole/Atrial diastole • chordae tendinae prevent cusps of valves from bulging too far into atria • blood flows into atria • blood flows into pulmonary trunk and aorta Cardiac Cycle.exe 15-17

  15. Heart Sounds • Lubb • first heart sound • occurs during ventricular contraction Normal Beat.mov • Dupp • second heart sound • occurs during ventricular contraction Murmur – Murmer.mov 15-18

  16. Heart Sounds 15-19

  17. Cardiac Conduction System 15-21

  18. Cardiac Conduction System 15-22 Conducting System of the Heart.exe

  19. Electrocardiogram • recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium • used to assess heart’s ability to conduct impulses P wave – atrial depolarizatoin QRS wave – ventricular depolarization T wave – ventricular repolarization 15-24

  20. Electrocardiogram 15-25

  21. Electrocardiogram A prolonged QRS complex may result from damage to the A-V bundle fibers 15-26

  22. Summary of Changes During Cardiac Cycle 15-27

  23. Regulation of Cardiac Cycle • physical exercise • body temperature • parasympathetic impulses decrease heart action • sympathetic impulses increase heart action • cardiac center regulates autonomic impulses to the heart 15-28

  24. Blood Vessels • arteries • arterioles • capillaries • venules • veins 15-30

  25. Arteries and Arterioles • Arterioles • thinner wall than artery • helps control blood flow into a capillary • Artery • thick strong wall Heart Attach.mov 15-31

  26. Walls of Artery and Vein 15-32

  27. Arteriole • smallest arterioles only have a few smooth muscle fibers • capillaries lack muscle fibers 15-33

  28. Capillaries • extensions of inner lining of arterioles 15-35

  29. Exchange in the Capillaries • water and other substances leave capillaries because of net outward pressure at the capillaries’s arteriolar ends • water enters capillaries’s venular ends because of a net inward pressure 15-38

  30. Venules and Veins • Venule • thinner wall than arteriole • less smooth muscle and elastic tissue than arteriole • Vein • three layers to wall but middle layer is poorly developed • serves as blood reservoir 15-39

  31. Venous Valves 15-40

  32. Blood Volumes in Vessels 15-41

  33. Arterial Blood Pressure Blood Pressure – • Arterial Blood Pressure • rises when ventricles contract • falls when ventricles relax • systolic pressure – • diastolic pressure – 15-42

  34. Pulse • alternate expanding and recoiling of the arterial wall that can be felt 15-43

  35. Pulmonary Circuit • consists of vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart 15-50

  36. Blood Flow Through Alveoli • cells of alveolar wall are tightly joined together • the high osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid draws water out of them 15-51

  37. Systemic Circuit • includes the aorta and its branches • includes the system of veins that return blood to the right atrium 15-52

  38. Major Vessels of Arterial System 15-53

  39. Major Blood VesselsAssociated With Heart 15-54

  40. Abdominal Aorta and Its Major Branches 15-56

  41. Arteries to Neck, Head, and Brain 15-57

  42. Major Vessels of the Venous System 15-63

  43. Life-Span Changes • deposition of cholesterol in blood vessels • heart enlarges • cardiac muscle cells die • fibrous connective tissue of heart increases • adipose tissue of heart increases • blood pressure increases • resting heart rate decreases 15-70

  44. Clinical Application Arrhythmias • Ventricular fibrillation • rapid, uncoordinated depolarization of ventricles • Tachycardia • rapid heartbeat • Atrial flutter • rapid rate of atrial depolarization 15-71

  45. Angiogram • Angioplasty & Stenting • Atherectomy • Bypass Surgery • Coronary Artery Disease • Plaque Rupture