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FDR Recognizes the Soviet Union (late 1933)

FDR Recognizes the Soviet Union (late 1933). FDR felt that recognizing Moscow might bolster the US against Japan. Maybe trade with the USSR would help the US economy during the Depression. FDR’s “Good Neighbor” Policy.

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FDR Recognizes the Soviet Union (late 1933)

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  1. FDR Recognizes the Soviet Union(late 1933) • FDR felt that recognizing Moscow might bolster the US against Japan. • Maybe trade with the USSR would help the US economy during the Depression.

  2. FDR’s “Good Neighbor” Policy • Important to have all nations in the Western Hemisphere united in lieu of foreign aggressions. • FDR  The good neighbor respects himself and the rights of others. • Policy of non-intervention and cooperation.

  3. Foreign Policy: Economic Policy • But the Great Depression made post-war recovery in Europe difficult in the 1930s: • The Hawley-Smoot Tariff in 1930 limited European attempts to sell their goods in the U.S. • The U.S. was unable to provide loans, leaving Germany unable to repay reparations & Europe unable to repay its war debts

  4. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) • 15 nations dedicated to outlawing aggression and war as tools of foreign policy. • 62 nations signed. • Problems no means of actual enforcement and gave Americans a false sense of security.

  5. Hitler’s Rise to Power • 1933-Became Chancellor of Germany • 1934-Named Führer und Reichskanzle • Gleichschaltung ("bringing into line"): • economic Depression • the Versailles treaty • Communism • the "Judeo-Bolsheviks” • other "undesirable" minorities • 1935-Military build up, Luftwaffe, navy

  6. Growing Threat of War • 1931- Japan conquered Manchuria • 1932 – Stimson Doctrine proclaimed by US • No recognition of territory taken by force • Corresponded to Kellogg-Briand Pact

  7. Japanese Attack Manchuria (1931) • League of Nations condemned the action. • Japan leaves the League. • Hoover wanted no part in an American military action in the Far East.

  8. Japan gears up for war • They break the Washington Naval Treaty signed in 1922. • It was the 5:5:3:1:1 detailing the number of warships each country could maintain.

  9. Creation of Axis • 1939-“Pact of Steel”/Rome-Berlin Axis • 1940- Tripartite Pact

  10. Totalitarian Regimes: Benito Mussolini

  11. Totalitarian Regimes: Hideki Tojo & Emperor Hirohito

  12. Totalitarian Regimes: Hitler

  13. Germany Invaded the RhinelandMarch 7, 1936

  14. Neutrality Acts • Passed in 1935, ‘36, ‘37, and ’39 • Commitment to isolationism • Support from Washington’s Farewell • 1935-Arms embargo to belligerents • 1936-No loans; didn’t cover civil wars • 1937-Arms embargo to Spain (civil war); cash & carry policy • 1939-Aid to help democracy w/ cash & carry • Failed attempts to pass Ludlow Amendment

  15. The War Drums in Spain • Spanish Civil War(1936-1939) • General Francisco Franco- leads rebellion with the aid of other fascist dictators • The Leftist leaning Republican Government received aid from the USSR • The US remain neutral.

  16. Appeasing Japan and Germany Japan invades China (1937)

  17. Panay Incident (1937) • December 12, 1937. • Japan bombed USS Panay gunboat & threeStandard Oil tankers onthe Yangtze River. • The river was an international waterway. • Japan was testing US resolve! • Japan apologized, paid US an indemnity, and promised no further attacks. • Most Americans were satisfied with the apology. • Results  Japanese interpreted US tone as a license for further aggression against US interests

  18. What is the Difference Socialism: You have two cows. The government takes one and gives it to your neighbor because he doesn’t have a cow. Communism: You have two cows. The government takes both and gives you the milk. Fascism: You have two cows. The government takes both and sells you the milk. Nazism: You have two cows. The government takes both and shoots you. New Dealism: You have two cows. The government takes both and shoots one, milks the other and throws the milk away. Capitalism: You have two cows. You sell one and buy a bull.

  19. The Munich Pact Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

  20. More German Aggression • Europe had adopted a policy of appeasement with Hitler. The foolishly believed that each conquest would be his last. • 1936- Hitler invades the Rhineland • 1938-As a result of the Munich Conference, Hitler is given the Rhineland • 1939- • Aug: Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact ( the Hitler/ Stalin Pact)-USSR/Germany-non-aggression • Sept/Oct: Nazis invaded Poland • The invasion of Poland leads Britain and France to declare war on Germany.

  21. Effects of the Neutrality Acts Previous acts had forbade the US from intervening in foreign affairs. The Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed the US to adjust it’s stance on the sale of weapons to a CASH and CARRY policy.

  22. Hitler's War Machine on the Move When you start a war, what matters in not who is right, but who wins. Close your hearts to pity. Act with Brutality. Eighty million Germans must get what is their due. Their existence must be made secure. The strongest man is in the right.” April 1940, Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway. May 1940, he attacks the Netherlands and Belgium and then on to… France…by late June France has surrendered to Hitler’s forces and the British pull their army out of France.

  23. Roosevelt Moves to Militarize He encourages Americans to get behind the escalation of building aircraft and Navy. Within the year the US Congress appropriates $37 billion … about 5x larger than the New Deal budget. Sept. 1940 America enacts it’s first peacetime draft in preparation.

  24. Anti-Semitism on the Rise Speech by Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi propagandist, sanctions the mob attack on Jewish homes and businesses on November 9, 1938. This became known as Kristallnacht, or the “Night of Broken Glass” War Refugee Board- 1942 Roosevelt saved thousands of Hungarian Jews from Auschwitz.

  25. Aid to Britain • Realizing Britain stood alone against Hitler, Roosevelt had to make the decision for neutrality or aggression. • Air attacks begin on Britain in August 1940 • Sept 1940, FDR transfers 50 old model US Destroyers to Britain with the promise of the US receiving bases on Newfoundland and in South America.

  26. FDR Runs for a Third Term Wendell Willkie, Republican vs. FDR, Democrat Many felt that FDR was the man for the office during the difficult times ahead.

  27. Landmark Lend- Lease Act We would lend the necessary equipment to Britain, and they would return it when it was no longer need.

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