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Wartime America: World War II v. Vietnam War. Lizzy S. AHAP – KLM Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Essential Question:. What was national support like in wartime America during World War II and the Vietnam War?. On the Road to War: World War II. A Period of Isolationism.

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Wartime america world war ii v vietnam war

Wartime America:World War II v. Vietnam War

Lizzy S. AHAP – KLM

Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

What was national support like in wartime america during world war ii and the vietnam war

Essential Question:

What was national support like in wartime America during World War II and the Vietnam War?

On the road to war world war ii

On the Road to War:World War II

A period of isolationism
A Period of Isolationism

  • After breaking the isolationist policy during World War I in 1917, the United States returned to their reclusive ways during the 1920s, by drawing up a series of antiwar treaties.

    • Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

      • 15 nations signed including the United States, Great Britain, France, and Germany.

      • Each nation declared that they would no longer engage in war “as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.”

A period of isolationism1
A Period of Isolationism

  • In the 1930s, European and Asian developments accelerated. This worried the U.S. government, for fear that we might be going to war again.

  • Congress passed a series of laws in order to keep our isolationist policy, and out of the developing war.


Fdr s quarantine speech
FDR’s Quarantine Speech

  • On October 5, 1937, President Roosevelt delivered a speech in response to Germany and Italian participation in the Spanish Civil War, and Japan’s growing power in China.

    • FDR held sympathy for the Allies, making it difficult for the U.S. to remain completely neutral

Fdr s quarantine speech cont
FDR’s Quarantine Speech (cont.)

“…the will for peace on the part of peace-loving nations must express itself to the end that nations that may be tempted to violate their agreements and the rights of others will desist from such a cause.”

Staying out of war
Staying Out of War

  • Congress attempted to stay out of war by passing these bills:

    • Neutrality Act of 1935

      • Embargo of arms shipments to any foreign nation involved in the war

    • Neutrality Act of 1937

      • Tightened control on the U.S. economy (no assisting belligerents)

    • Neutrality Act of 1939

      • “Cash and carry” policy – no American ships used to transports goods across the ocean

Conflict in the nation

Anti-war, advocated the isolationist policy and complete neutrality

Aimed to enforce the Neutrality Acts

Prominent members:

Aviator Charles Lindbergh

Future President Gerald Ford

Publisher Joseph M. Patterson (New York Daily News)

Pro-war, advocated aid to the Allies in the war

Supported the Lend-Lease Act

Prominent members:

Governor Adlai Stevenson (IL)

U.S. Representative Claude Pepper (FL)

Hollywood screenwriter Philip Dunne

Journalist William Allen White

Conflict in the Nation

Committee to Defend America (by Aiding the Allies)

America First Committee

The public opinion
The Public Opinion neutrality

  • After France’s defeat, Americans’ opinions about the war’s outcome began to shift. By July 1940, over 66% of Americans (from opinion polls) believed that Germany posed a direct threat to the U.S.

  • Congress responded with the Burke-Wadsworth Act in September 1940.

    • Burke-Wadsworth Act: established the first peacetime military draft (in U.S. history)

Declaration of war
Declaration of War neutrality

  • Pearl Harbor inspired a sense of unity among Americans.

  • After the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, Congress approved FDR’s request for a declaration of war against Japan.

  • A few days later, the U.S. also went to war against Germany and Italy.

A view of the raid on Pearl Harbor

On the road to war vietnam war

On the Road to War: neutralityVietnam War

Supporting the french
Supporting the French neutrality

  • The Vietminh, the Vietnam nationalists, led by communist Ho Chi Minh, threatened the French-dominated regime.

  • The French went to the U.S. looking for support

    • February 1950: President Harry Truman agreed to provide direct military and economic aid, also recognizing the Bao Dai regime (the French-dominated regime).

The first indochina war
The First Indochina War neutrality

After Truman, President Eisenhower had supported the French as well, against the Vietminh.

By 1954, the U.S. was paying 80% of France’s war costs.

The war steadily turned against the French, and Eisenhower pulled out U.S. support.

The French government eventually left Vietnam after the Geneva Accords (1954), which officially had ended the war.

U s and south vietnam
U.S. and South Vietnam neutrality

  • After the Geneva Accords, the U.S. became the principal benefactor of the South Vietnam, through economic and military aid.

U.S. President Eisenhower greeting South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem

The viet cong
The Viet Cong neutrality

  • National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam

  • Supporters of Vietminh and North Vietnam who lived in the South

  • Aimed to reunite the nation under a communist leadership by overthrowing Diem’s “puppet regime.”

  • Progressively grew in power, eventually becoming the U.S. and South Vietnam’s opponent in the war

Support under johnson
Support Under Johnson neutrality

  • After President Kennedy’s coup to overthrow Diem, Lyndon Johnson felt obligated to continue giving support to South Vietnam.

  • President Johnson used his executive powers to eventually lead the nation into war, which initially, the public stood defiantly behind.

  • 1964 Presidential Election: Johnson was viewed as a “moderate” concerning the war issue compared to his opponent, Barry Goldwater.

Gulf of tonkin incident
Gulf of Tonkin Incident neutrality

  • According to President Johnson, American destroyers had been attacked by North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin

  • Americans viewed this incident as an act of aggression

Johnson s response
Johnson’s Response neutrality

  • After the Gulf of Tonkin incident, President Johnson responded with a message to congress:

    • “…the United States intends no rashness, and seeks no wider war. We must make it clear to all that the United States is united in its determination to bring about the end of Communist subversion and aggression in the area.”

Gulf of tonkin resolution
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution neutrality

  • Congress responded to the Gulf of Tonkin incident, by passing the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    • Authorized the president to “take all necessary measures” to protect American forces and “prevent further aggression in Southeast Asia.

    • “an open-ended legal authorization for escalation of the conflict”

A comparison
A Comparison neutrality

  • The U.S. became involved in WWII and the Vietnam War due to attacks on the nation (Pearl Harbor and Gulf of Tonkin incident, respectively).

  • President Roosevelt and President Johnson were sympathetic to one side in the beginning of each war, eventually intervening America on that side.

Women in the war world war ii

Women In The War: neutralityWorld War II

Rosie the riveter
Rosie the Riveter neutrality

  • The “ideal women worker” – loyal, efficient, patriotic, pretty

  • A huge icon for women during World War II, and in American wartime propaganda

  • Inspired women to get involved in the wartime effort

Rosie the riveter cont
Rosie the Riveter (cont.) neutrality

Rosie the Riveter

Lyrics by Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb, 1942

“All the day long,

Whether rain or shine,

She's a part of the assembly line.

She's making history,

Working for victory,

Rosie the Riveter…

…That little girl will do more than a

Male will do…

…Rosie is protecting Charlie,

Working overtime on the riveting


…There's something true about,

Red, white, and blue about,

Rosie the Riveter.”

Norman Rockwell1943

The domestic view
The Domestic View neutrality

Grow your own, Can your own

Make This Pledge: I Pay No More Than Top Legal Prices

The domestic view1
The Domestic View neutrality

  • Women were told to conserve in order to support the war effort

    • Carry groceries instead of using car

      • Preserved tired rubber

    • Grow more food

      • Increased food production, plus self-sufficiency

    • Sew and repair clothing rather than buying new clothes

      • Save cloth for the troops

    • Raise money for and contribute to war bonds

    • Contribute morality

Military women
Military Women neutrality

  • Excluded from combat positions

  • Some served doing traditional “women’s work” in military branches (i.e. cleaning and secretarial duties)

  • Many women became nurses, or used their nursing expertise to help in the war effort (i.e. Red Cross, military nursing units)

Military women1
Military Women neutrality

Enlist in the WAVESJohn Falter

More Nurses are Needed!

Military women2
Military Women neutrality

  • Women in the U.S. military during World War II:

    • Army: 140,000

    • Navy: 100,000

    • Marines: 23,000

    • Coast Guard: 13,000

    • Air Force: 1,000

    • Army and Navy Nurse Corps: 74,000

Women in the war vietnam war

Women in the War: neutralityVietnam War

Military women3
Military Women neutrality

  • Many of the women in this war were forgotten, men dominated this war

  • Around 11,000 American women were stationed in Vietnam during the war.

  • Roles in the military:

    • Nurses in the Army, Navy, and Air Force

    • Physicians

    • Physical therapists

    • Personnel in Medical Service Corps

    • Air traffic controllers

    • Communications specialists

    • Intelligence officers

    • Clerks

Statistics neutrality

  • The American women who served in Vietnam:

    • U.S. Army: 4,675

    • U.S. Navy: 423

    • U.S. Marine Corps: 36

    • U.S. Air Force: 771

    • Number of women killed: 8

  • Total number of U.S. military personnel who served in Vietnam: 2,709,965

Vietnam women s memorial
Vietnam Women’s neutralityMemorial

  • Designed by Glenna Goodacre

  • Dedicated to the women who served in the Vietnam War, and for the families who had lost loved ones

  • Reminding Americans of the comfort and care women had provided during the war

A comparison1
A Comparison neutrality

  • World War II had been a major advancement for women in the U.S., but once the men had returned, women were back to their domestic lives.

  • Vietnam War had occurred right after the “baby boom” period, and the men had dominated during the war. The women were overlooked, and referred to as the “forgotten soldiers,” unlike their larger roles in World War II.

Wartime effort world war ii

Wartime Effort: neutralityWorld War II

Peacetime preparations
Peacetime Preparations neutrality

  • World War II was the first American war to establish a peacetime military draft: the Burke-Wadsworth Act.

  • The U.S. economy had already devoted some of their industries to aid the Allies.

    • Supplied ships and munitions to Great Britain

  • Engaged in naval combat with German U-Boats in the Atlantic

Support the war
Support the War neutrality

“Don’t Let That Shadow Touch Them”Issued by the Treasury Department

“United We Win”Alexander Liberman1943

War production board
War Production Board neutrality

  • Established January 1942 by executive order

  • Converted America’s peacetime economy into maximum wartime production

  • Directed war production

    • Supervised the production of over $185 billion worth of weapons and supplies

Conservation neutrality

“When You Ride Alone You Ride With Hitler!”Weimer Pursell1943

“Waste Helps the Enemy”Vanderlaan

Enlisting troops
Enlisting Troops neutrality

“Want Action? Join the U.S. Marine Corps!”James Montgomery Flagg 1942

“Man the Guns, Join the Navy”McClelland Barclay 1942

Results neutrality

  • Troops

  • Casualties

Wartime effort vietnam war

Wartime Effort: neutralityVietnam War

Enlisting troops1
Enlisting Troops neutrality

  • Military draft faced some protest from the American public

  • President Nixon and his special assistant, Henry Kissinger, came up with a “lottery” system in 1969.

    • 19-year-olds with low lottery numbers were drafted

    • Met a lot of protest and controversy

  • Later on, President Nixon created an all-volunteer army

The tet offensive
The Tet Offensive neutrality

  • The first day of the Vietnamese New Year, January 31, 1968, North Vietnam launched an enormous attack on the U.S. and South Vietnam.

  • Suggested to the U.S. how brutal and barbaric the war was becoming

  • Completely undermined U.S.’s national support – within weeks the opposition to the war doubled

Anti war
Anti-War neutrality

Anti war1
Anti-War neutrality

Opposition to the war
Opposition to the War neutrality

  • The Anti-Vietnam War movement

    • Protests

      • Invasion of Cambodia - Kent State

      • End to War - Marches in Washington D.C.

    • Teach-ins: students and faculty coming together, discussing the war

      • University of Michigan

      • University of California, Berkeley

    • National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam

      • Burned draft cards – New York

Results neutrality

  • Troops

  • Casualties

A comparison2
A Comparison neutrality

  • America’s national support differed when comparing World War II to the Vietnam War. Despite each war’s start with a strong sense of unity, support increased as WWII continued, yet decreased throughout the years that the U.S. battled Vietnam.

The end

THE END neutrality

Works cited
Works Cited neutrality

  • Barclay, McClelland. Man the Guns, Join the Navy. 1942. Powers of Persuasion. The National Archives. 3 June 2007. <http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/man_the_guns/man_the_guns.html>.

  • Brinkley, Alan. American History: a Survey. 12th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2007. 730-736. 835-844. 870.

  • Columbia University. "War Production Board." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. New York: Columbia UP, 2000.

  • Evans, Redd, and John J. Loeb. "Rosie the Riveter." The Kimberly Jensen Home Page. 1942. Western Oregon University. 4 June 2007. <http://www.wou.edu/las/socsci/kimjensen/Rosie%20the%20Riveter%20Lyrics.htm>.

  • Falter, John. Enlist in the WAVES. Recruiting Posters for Women from World War II. Department of the Navy. 4 June 2007. <http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/posters/wwiiwomen/wavep1.htm>.

  • Flagg, James M. Want Action? Join U.S. Marines Corp! 1942. U.S. World War II Posters: Recruit. 3 June 2007. <http://www.rare-posters.com/ww2recruiting.html>.

  • Fried, Ellen. "From Pearl Harbor to Elvis: Images That Endure." The U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. Winter 2004. 2 June 2007. <http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/winter/top-images.html?template=print>.

  • Isserman, Maurice. America at War: World War II. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2003. 19-21.

  • Johnson, Lyndon B. "President Johnson's Message to Congress." 5 Aug. 1964. 4 June 2007. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/psources/ps_tonkingulf.html>.

Works cited cont
Works Cited (cont.) neutrality

  • Lewis, Jone J. "Women and World War II: Women and the Military." About.Com. 4 June 2007. <http://womenshistory.about.com/od/warwwii/a/military.htm>.

  • Liberman, Alexander. United We Win. 1943. Powers of Persuasion. The National Archives. 3 June 2007. <http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/united_we_win/images_html/united_we_win.html>.

  • Prados, John. "JFK and the Diem Coup." The National Security Archive. 5 Nov. 2003. George Washington University. 3 June 2007. <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/index.htm>.

  • Pursell, Weimer. When You Ride Alone You Ride with Hitler! 1943. Powers of Persuasion. The National Archives. 3 June 2007. <http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/use_it_up/images_html/ride_with_hitler.html>.

  • Rockwell, Norman. Rosie the Riveter. 1943. Voice of America News. 4 June 2007. <http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/archive/2006-12/2006-12-06-voa2.cfm>.

  • Sage, Henry J. "Franklin D. Roosevelt: Quarantine the Aggressors." Sage History. 4 Oct. 2006. Northern Virginia Community College. 2 June 2007. <http://sagehistory.net/worldwar2/docs/FDRQuar.htm>.

  • Vanderlaan. Waste Helps the Enemy. Powers of Persuasion. The National Archives. 3 June 2007. <http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/use_it_up/images_html/waste.html>.

Works cited cont1
Works Cited (cont.) neutrality

  • Yellin, Emily. Our Mother’s War: American Women at Home and at the Front during World War II. Free Press, New York: 2004.

  • "Committee to Defend America by Aiding Allies." Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. 18 Jan. 2002. Princeton University. 2 June 2007. <http://infoshare1.princeton.edu/libraries/firestone/rbsc/finding_aids/cda.html>.

  • Don‘t Let That Shadow Touch Them: Buy War Bonds. The Art of War: World War II Posters From the Government Documents Collection. West Texas A&M University. 3 June 2007. <http://www.wtamu.edu/library/documents/posters.shtml>.

  • "During the Vietnam Era..." Vietnam Women's Memorial Foundation. 2006. 4 June 2007. <http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=womenshistory&cdn=education&tm=9&gps=25_8_1020_548&f=10&tt=14&bt=1&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.vietnamwomensmemorial.org/pages/framesets/setvwmp.html>.

  • Girls Say Yes to Boys Who Say No. Figures and Images. St. Olaf College. 5 June 2007. <http://www.stolaf.edu/depts/womens-studies/ws399/ws399_03/Projects/dabneyproject/figures-images.html#girls>.

  • Help End Demonstrations. Protesting Vietnam. Binghamton University. 4 June 2007. <http://www.binghamton.edu/ctah/student/lovell/lovellprint.html>.

Works cited cont2
Works Cited (cont.) neutrality

  • Look At Our Soldiers! Bring Them Home! 1968. Centre for the History of the Media at UCD. UCD Dublin. 4 June 2007. <http://www.ucd.ie/mediahis/>.

  • Make This Pledge: I Pay No More Than Top Legal Prices. The Art of War: World War II Posters From the Government Documents Collection. West Texas A&M University. 3 June 2007. <http://www.wtamu.edu/library/documents/posters.shtml>.

  • More Nurses are Needed!World War II: Poster. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 4 June 2007. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/art/print?id=76144&articleTypeId=0>.

  • "Number of American Women Who Served in Vietnam, U.S. Military." The American War Library. 1988. 4 June 2007. <http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=womenshistory&cdn=education&tm=485&gps=133_8_1020_548&f=10&tt=14&bt=1&bts=0&zu=http%3A//members.aol.com/warlibrary/vwamw.htm>.

  • "Statistical Summary of America's Major Wars." Special Collections LSU Libraries. 13 June 2001. Louisiana State University. 3 June 2007. <http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/other/stats/warcost.htm>.

  • "The Image and Reality of Women Who Worked During World War II." Rosie the Riveter: Women Working During World War II. 8 May 2007. National Park Service. 4 June 2007. <http://www.nps.gov/pwro/collection/website/rosie.htm>.

Works cited cont3
Works Cited (cont.) neutrality

  • This is Our Only Vietnam Deadline. SF Gate. San Francisco Chronicle. 5 June 2007. <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/object/article?o=3&f=/c/a/2005/09/29/DDGA1EUVDO1.DTL>.

  • "Viet Cong (VC)." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 3 June 2007. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9075311/Viet-Cong>.

  • "Vietnam War: History." BBC News. 7 June 2007. BBC. 3 June 2007. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/05/vietnam_war/html/build_up.stm>.

  • Vietnam Women's Memorial. Washington D.C. Visiting DC. 5 June 2007 <http://www.visitingdc.com/memorial/vietnam-women's-memorial.htm>.

  • We‘ll Have Lots to Eat This Winter, Won‘t We Mother? 1941. World War II Posters: Victory Begins At Home. The National Archives. 4 June 2007. <http://womenshistory.about.com/od/worldwariiposterart/ig/World-War-II---Victory-Home/Lots-to-Eat.htm>.

  • "Woman Fight the War From Home." Women and World War II. San Diego University. 4 June 2007. <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/st/~cg3/pageone.html>.

  • "World War II Pictures by Date." History Department At San Diego University. University of San Diego. 4 June 2007. <http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/WW2Index/picindex5.html>.