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Vietnam. Jacinta McHugh. Where in the World?. Map of Vietnam. About Vietnam. Located in South East Asia. Estimated population of 84 million of which 75% of people live in rural areas. Life expectancy at birth: 71.3 Human Development Index Rank: 109

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Jacinta McHugh

about vietnam
About Vietnam
  • Located in South East Asia.
  • Estimated population of 84 million of which 75% of people live in rural areas.
  • Life expectancy at birth: 71.3
  • Human Development Index Rank: 109
  • Struggled against outside powers for many years-

China in 19thcentury and the U.S. and France in 20th century.

  • 1975 Vietnam reunited under communist rule.
  • Main ethnic group, Kinh, represents 86% of total pop.
  • Among one of the fastest growing economies in the last 20 years.
  • Reduced poverty from 58% in 1993 to 20% in 2004 however, this 20% is 20 million people.
and vietnam
and Vietnam
  • Irish Aid has estimated in the period from 2007- 2010 it will have provided €87.5 million in bilateral aid.
  • In the future Irish Aid aims to:
    • Strengthen the delivery of basic services and social protection measures to people.
    • To promote economic and social transition and growth in the private sector.
    • To strengthen systems which enhance state accountability to citizens- ‘people know, people discuss, people do and people check’.
mdg 1 eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
MDG 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

Kate McCarthy Seamus Finnerty

goal 1

Target 1 – Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day

  • Viet Nam has made great strides in this goal
  • In 1990’s, the country implemented its own goals (VDG’s) with their own deadlines for poverty reduction.
  • However, poverty reduction is unevenly distributed throughout the country
  • 90% of the poor in Viet Nam live in rural areas, the majority being ethnic minorities
  • Growing gap between the rich and the poor. The richest 20% of the population were responsible for almost half the total expenditure in 2004

Goal 1

"Although Vietnam's overall progress towards MDG’s remains impressive, there are now real challenges to ensuring that those Vietnamese families that have left poverty do not fall back into poverty.”

- John Hendra, United Nations Resident Coordinator in Vietnam

goal 1 target 2
Goal 1 Target 2

Hunger- a condition in which people do not get enough food to provide the nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water) for active and healthy lives (Bread for the World Hunger Report 2004)

Other factors which effect the problem of hunger; unclean

drinking water, low levels of sanitation, poor hygiene and

insufficient health services.

mdg 2 achieve universal primary education
MDG 2: Achieve universal primary education

Ciara O’Dea Anthony O’Donoghue

mdg 2 and education globally
MDG 2 and Education Globally
  • 113 million children do not attend school
  • But this goal is within reach.
  • Achievement of universal primary education (MDG 2) =
        • economic and social development which helps end world poverty
        • creates opportunities and choices for people
        • allows people to take their future and livelihoods into their own hands.
education vietnam
Education: Vietnam
  • 1990 - 87% net enrolment
  • 2006 – 96% net enrolment
  • Very likely to achieve full primary school enrolment by 2015
enrolment problems
Enrolment Problems
  • Less than average enrolment amongst ethnic minorities
  • Educational costs:
        • No tuition fees for poverty stricken
        • school buildings, maintenance costs etc
        • Deter poor from going to school
approaches that have led to the success
Approaches that have led to the success
  • more and better school books
  • teaching aids and curriculum standards
  • building and rehabilitating classrooms
  • improving management of the primary education
  • One single curriculum
  • Inclusive ethos- ethnic and diverse minorities
  • bilingual education
  • Socio-economic plan
the current situation
The current situation
  • Huge strives have been made in Vietnam
  • On course to achieve its MDG 2 commitment by 2015
goal 3 to promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 3: To promote gender equality and empower women
  • 3.1 Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education:
      • Gender parity indexfor Primary enrolment: 0.9
      • Secondary enrolment: 72% of boys and 67% girls (2004)
      • Gender Parity index for Tertiary level: 0.74 (2001)
  • Considerations:
      • Averages: doesn’t differentiate between ethnic groups
      • Gender inequalities in ethnic minorities

3.2 Women in waged employment in the non-agricultural sector:

      • In Vietnam, ‘women continue to receive proportionally lower wages than male counter parts’ (Irish Aid, 2009, 11)
      • Average female wage is currently 85% of males
  • 3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament:
      • Steady progression: 17.7% (1990), 26.2% (1998), 25.8% (2009)
      • Ireland 13.3%, Vietnam 25.8% (2009)
goal 5 to improve maternal health
Goal 5: To improve maternal health
  • Maternal Mortality Ratio
      • Currently, 150 per 100, 000
      • Average in South East Asia 300 per 100,000 (UN, 2009, Gender Progress Chart)
  • Proportion of births attended by a skilled health personnel
      • Consistent improvement in this area of the last number of years
      • 87.7% (2006)

Reproductive health

      • ‘high level of knowledge about family planning’ (Irish Aid, 2008)
      • Availability of modern contraceptive methods is limited.
      • Condom use is limited.
      • It is considered the woman’s responsibility to protect against pregnancy
      • Adolescent rate (number of pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15 to 19) is 35 per 1,000 (UN, 2007)
  • More to do?
goal 7 ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 7 – Ensure Environmental Sustainability
  • Target 1: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
  • Target 2:Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.
  • Target 3:Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
  • Target 4: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.

According to the UN progress is good but needs to be sped up – due to steadily-increasing pollution and bio-diversity loss; slowest initiative is provision of sanitation facilities.

  • Rural mountainous areas and urban slums are affected worst by this – difficult terrain/isolated and over-crowding in cities.
  • The proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility is steadily increasing, from 40% in 1995 to 51% in 2000 to 65% in 2006.
  • Number of people using an improved drinking water source have also increased significantly, from 64% in 1995 to 77% in 2000 to 92% in 2006.

Compared to 60.5% of the population living in slums in 1990, in 2005 there were only 41.3% living in slums.

  • Aid’s P135 programme, designed to improve facilities in rural areas and One UN’s KonTum project, which brings safe drinking water and sanitation facilities to disadvantaged villages, as well as education and health care.
  • UN-HABITAT – runs several initiatives aimed at helping improve basic facilities in towns and improving town-planning and sustainability.

The land area covered by forest has increased from 28.8% in 1990 to 36% in 2000 to 39.7% in 2005 – due to reforestation initiatives - Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) & the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in Vietnam.

  • FAO are helping to promote sustainable deforestation – preserves bio-diversity, forest coverage & creates employment and industry.
  • Livelihood of 70% of the rural population is based on exploitation of natural resources - projects encouraging sustainable agriculture practices like this one are crucial in helping Vietnam to reach goal 7.

Vietnam is one of world’s most biologically diverse countries - 10% of the world’s species - in danger due to agricultural expansion.

  • The percentage of terrestrial and marine areas protected rose from 2.5% in 1998 to 3.6% in 2008.
  • CO2 emissions rose from 0.6809 metric tons in 2000 to 1.1768 metric tons in 2004.
  • Consumption of ozone-depleting substances has risen from 369.4 metric tons in 2000 to 458.7 metric tons in 2005.
  • Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment initiated some positive changes, e.g. the capital city’s first recycling plant, power-cuts to businesses for high pollution levels.

Sharon Devine


Goal 1

Goal 2

This goal is within reach with 96% enrolment.

Strategies have been implemented to encourage children to attend school.

  • Great strides have been made towards achieving this goal by setting their own goals.
  • The gap between the rich and the poor is growing.
  • Number of those going hungry has been reduced but not halved.

Goal 3

Goal 5

50% less women die during child birth compared to other South-East Asian countries.

87.7% of births are attended by a health professional.

The availability and use of contraception is limited.

  • The number of boys and girls enrolled in all levels of education is almost equal.
  • Women get roughly 85% of a man’s salary
  • There are more women in the Vietnamese national parliament than in the Dáil.

Goal 7

  • Progress is good but they may not achieve this goal.
  • Use of proper sanitation facilities has increased.
  • Improved drinking water.
  • Less than 50% live in slums.
  • Pollution has increased in the last five years.