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Subduction Zones of the World: Comparison to the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the Potential for Producing Large-scale Earthquakes. By Alicia Thompson. Outline. Subduction Zone and Large-scale earthquake Tour of subduction zones South American New Zealand Sumatra Nankai

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Subduction Zones of the World: Comparison to the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the Potential for Producing Large-scale Earthquakes

By Alicia Thompson

outline
Outline
  • Subduction Zone and Large-scale earthquake
  • Tour of subduction zones
    • South American
    • New Zealand
    • Sumatra
    • Nankai
    • Kamchatka and Kurile
    • Alaska and Aleutian
    • Cascadia
  • Conclusion
subduction zone
Subduction Zone
  • What is a subduction zone?
  • Ocean to Continental
  • Ocean to Ocean

www3.telus.net/.../images/subduction.gif

what can cause a large scale earthquake
What can cause a large-scale earthquake?

B. During an

http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/

south american
South American
  • During the 1960 Chile earthquake, the western margin of the South American Plate lurched as much as 60 feet relative to the subducting Nazca Plate, in an area 600 miles long and more than 100 miles wide.
sumatra 2005
Sumatra, 2005
  • Thrust-faulting on the interface of the India plate and the Burma plate
  • Fault- rupture propagated to the northwest from the epicenter for about 500 km with a maximum displacement of the plane about 20 meters
nankai
Nankai

Location map of Nankai margin, illustrating the coseismic slip areas of the 1944 (light red filled contours) and 1946 (blue arrows denote rupture sequence) earthquakes obtained from the tsunami data and seismic wave data. Red contours indicate the plate depth from the sea floor. Areas marked in black represent locations with 2.5 km water depth and 7 km sub-bottom depth to the plate interface

kamchatka and kurile
Kamchatka and Kurile
  • Kamchatka: The rupture started in the north and propagated southwest for 600–700 km with a velocity of 3–3.5 km/s
  • The slip may represent two asperities, both in the down-dip portion of the ruptured fault: a smaller asperity near the initiation of the rupture and another, larger one, within the second half of the rupture.
kamchatka and kurile20
Kamchatka and Kurile
  • Kurile: The rupture started in the south and propagated mainly to the northeast.
  • The latest significant event in the Kuriles (M8.3) occurred on November 15, 2006 in the central arc. Prior to this event, the 250-km-long segment of the arc between the 1918 rupture in the southwest and the 1915 rupture in the northeast has been recognized as a seismic gap
kamchatka and kurile21
Kamchatka and Kurile
  • The consequence of this is that the subducting lithosphere is relatively cold and thick and the Wadati-Benioff zone is clearly defined by hypocenters plunging to depths of 600 km south of the southern tip of Kamchatka.
  • There is a gap in seismicity that occurs between 200–300 km within the Kamchatka slab. This is a common observation in deep slabs around the world.
  • Later, deeper earthquakes increase in numbers due to transformational faulting related to phase transitions in the deep part of the upper mantle. In Kamchatka, resumption of seismic activity starts at 400–500 km.
alaska and aleutian
Alaska and Aleutian
  • Alaska 1964: A unilateral rupture started in the Prince William Sound region and propagated southwest for ~800 km.
  • The studies indicate two major moment release areas. The larger asperity was located near the epicenter, and a second, smaller one was within the second half of the rupture zone near Kodiak Island.
alaska and aleutian24
Alaska and Aleutian
  • Aleutian: A unilateral rupture propagating from southeast to northwest for about 600 km.
  • Three major pulses of moment release were identified from the analysis of teleseismic P‑waves which correlate with Rat, Buldir, and Near tectonic blocks
alaska and aleutian25
Alaska and Aleutian
  • The maximum depth of seismicity changes from 250 km to 50 km from east to west.
  • the slab seismicity below 100 km is characterized by dips that vary smoothly from shallow (45°) in the eastern Aleutians to steep (60°) in the central Aleutians and slightly shallower and less well resolved dip (~50°) in the far western Aleutian.
cascadian subduction zone
Cascadian Subduction Zone
  • Juan de Fuca plate subducts from about 2°–7° to 12° at a shallow depth of about 60–70 km
  • www.bhrc.ac.ir/.../subduction_files/image001.jpg
conclusion
Conclusion
  • By understanding how mega-thrust earthquakes occur in other subduction zones may be able to make preparations for potential earthquakes along the Cascadia Subduction zone.
references
References
  • Long-Term Perspectives on Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis at Subduction Zones by Kenji Satake1 and Brian F. Atwater2
  • Global frequency of magnitude 9 earthquakes by Robert McCaffrey
  • NanTroSEIZE: The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment A Proposed IODP Complex Drilling Project Revised October 1, 2003
  • Ultralong Period Seismic Study of the December 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Implications for Regional Tectonics and the Subduction Process by Seth Stein and Emile A. Okal
  • The Great Sumatra Quake by Mark Wheeler
  • Subduction zone coupling and tectonic block rotations in the North Island, New Zealand Laura M. Wallace and John Beavan. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • Appendix L: Cascadia Subduction Zone By Arthur D. Frankel1 and Mark D. Petersen1
  • www3.telus.net/.../images/subduction.gif
  • Surviving a Tsunami—Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan Compiled by Brian F. Atwater, Marco Cisternas V.1, Joanne Bourgeois2, Walter C. Dudley3, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H.Stauffer 1999; Reprinted 2001; revised and reprinted 2005 http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/
  • USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washingtonhttp://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/PlateTectonics/Maps/map_south_america_plates.html
  • Chapter 2www.cdemhawkesbay.govt.nz/PicsHotel/cdem/Brochure/Facing%20the%20Risks_Chap%202_Earthquake%20Hazards
  • Subduction zone coupling and tectonic block rotations in the North Island, New Zealand Laura M. Wallace and John Beavan Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • http://www.freewebs.com/mdreyes3/plate-tectonics.jpg
  • Tectonic Summary Magnitude 9.1 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA Sunday, December 26, 2004 at 00:58:53 UTC http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2004/eq_041226/neic_slav_ts.html
  • A new view into the Cascadia subduction zone and volcanic arc: Implications for earthquake hazards along the Washington margin Tom Parsons et others.