Plate Tectonics Review

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# Plate Tectonics Review - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Plate Tectonics Review. Chapter 8. The \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ is made of partially melted, “plastic” rock material and plates “float” on it. asthenosphere. At subduction boundaries one plate \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_ another plate. Subducts/plunges/ sinks below. A transform boundary is when \_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_\_.

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### Plate Tectonics Review

Chapter 8

The ______________ is made of partially melted, “plastic” rock material and plates “float” on it.
Some ________________ rocks contain iron-based magnetic minerals that “record” the direction of Earth’s magnetic field when the rock formed.
Mid-ocean ridges are broken into sections that are offset from each other by breaks called __________________ that are perpendicular (at right angles) to the ridge and are the source of earthquakes here.
In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed the hypothesis of ______________________, which stated the continents have moved over time.
As you move out from the center of a mid-ocean ridge, what happens to the temperature of the rock?
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
• East Pacific Rise
1. volcanoes
• 2. earthquakes
• 3. the formation of new crust (sea floor)
When Earth’s magnetic field “matches” up with the geographic poles is known as _______________ polarity
• Ex. magnetic north & geographic north match up and magnetic south & geographic south match up
As you move out from the center of the mid-ocean ridge, what happens to the age of the rocks?
1

2

• Label the layers…

3

4

Away from each other (divergent plate boundary)
• Towards each other (convergent plate boundary)
• Slide past each other (transform plate boundary)
Marianas
• Peru-Chile
• Tonga
• Aleutian
When Earth’s magnetic field does not “match” up with the geographic poles is known as _______________ polarity
• Ex. magnetic north & geographic south match up and magnetic south & geographic north match up
What are 3 features/effects found at oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries.
• 1.
• 2.
• 3.
1. trenches
• 2. volcanic island arcs (on the overriding plate)
• 3. earthquakes (shallow to very deep)
1. shape of continents (“puzzle fit”)
• 2. fossils
• 3. distinctive rock formations
• 4. climate change evidence (ex. coal deposits)
Magnetic properties & ages of igneous rocks on the ocean floor provide evidence for ___________
Two other causes of plate movement aside from convection cells in the asthenosphere (mantle) are ______________________ & _______________________
ridge push (rising magma pushing the plates outward),& slab pull (cooling, sinking material pulls the plates down).
Violent, explosive eruptions
• b/c silica-rich magma which is thick & gooey (hard for gases to escape)
The center of the mid-ocean ridge shows the ________________ orientation (direction) of Earth’s magnetic field
The Mariana Islands
• Aleutian Islands
A long chain of gently-erupting volcanic “mountains” on the ocean floor with a deep rift in the center is called a _____________________
Gentle, oozing eruptions
• b/c magma is silica-poor, which makes it thin & runny (gases escape easily)
• 1.
• 2.
• 3.
1. trenches (near the coast)
• 2. volcanic mountains along the coast of the (overriding) continental plate
• 3. earthquakes
_________________ is the theory that describes the formation, movements, and interactions of Earth’s lithospheric plates.
________________ in the asthenosphere (mantle) cause hot magma to rise and cool magma to sink, allowing for plate movement.