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J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V PowerPoint Presentation
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J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V

J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V

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J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V

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  1. J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press and a Changing World

  2. News of the day…. • NYTimes “Bodies on Bridge” • To Portray the Horror, News Media Agonize (play video) • You Be the Editor • Naming a Juror Went Too Far J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  3. Watch for necessary conditions for mass media gestation: • Production technology • Literate audience • Distribution system • Changes in the Infosphere J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  4. Four Important Periods in the History of the Book • The 7th to the 9th century was the heyday of the church-produced "illuminated manuscript". • 13th to 15th Century: The secularization of book production. • 15th to 16th Century: The first printed books. • 16th to 17th Century: New information is put into books; important consequences for European life and society. Source: http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Books/four.html J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  5. 7th to 13th Century • 7th to 13th Century: The age of religious "manuscript" book production. • Books in this period are constructed by hand, • Largely religious texts whose creation is meant as an act of worship. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  6. Scriptorium J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  7. Illuminated manuscript J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  8. Illuminated MSS page Today’s Scriptorium: Christ in the Desert www.historicpages.com/ texts/mshist.htm J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  9. 13th – 15th Centuries • Canterbury Tales is written sometime between 1387 and Chaucer's death in 1400. • It is possible to see the beginning of the shift to secular concerns in religious works. The themes of the works are still religious but the secular world is beginning to intrude on the borders. • Even quasi-religious books begin to show non-religious aspects of life: more realistic looking people and artifacts. The Visconti Hours is a 14th century book of hours J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  10. The production of secular books is driven by two things: • The rise of universities in Europe, spreading from Italy. • The return of the crusaders in the 13th century, who bring with them texts from Byzantium. These books, written during the Greek and Roman periods in history, focus on this-world concerns. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  11. 15th to 16th Century: • The first printed books. These are print versions of traditional works like the Bible, books of hours (prayer books) and the religious calendars. • Press & Bible: 1455 Frankfurt Book Fair, and cost the equivalent of three years' pay for the average clerk. • By 1495: 55 publishing houses throughout Europe • 1500: approximately 35,000 book titles have been printed; some 10 million copies J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  12. 15-16th Centuries • 1450: A few newsletters begin circulating in Europe. • 1495: A paper mill is established in England. • 1560: Legalized, regulated private postal systems grow in Europe. • 1609: First regularly published newspaper appears in Germany. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  13. 16-17th Centuries • 1631: A French newspaper carries classified ads. • First printing presses in Americas:Mexico by 1542; Cuba, Peru = 1570s. • 1639: In Boston, someone is appointed to deal with foreign mail. • 1639: First printing press in the American colonies J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  14. The Printing Press and a Changing World • 1650: Leipzig has a daily newspaper. • 1653: Parisians can put their postage-paid letters in mail boxes. • 1659: Londoners get the penny post. • 1661: Postal service within the colony of Virginia. • 1673: Mail is delivered on a route between New York and Boston. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  15. The Printing Press and a Changing World • 1689: Newspapers are printed, at first as unfolded "broadsides." • 1696: By now England has 100 paper mills. • 1698: Public library opens in Charleston, S.C. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  16. 18th Century • 1704: A newspaper in Boston prints advertising. • 1714: Henry Mill receives patent in England for a typewriter. • 1719: Reaumur proposes using wood to make paper. • 1727: Schulze begins science of photochemistry. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  17. 18th Century • 1755: Regular mail ship runs between England and the colonies. • 1770: The eraser. • 1780: Steel pen points begin to replace quill feathers. • 1785: Stagecoaches carry the mail between towns in U.S. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  18. 18th Century • 1790: In England, the hydraulic press is invented. • 1792: Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France. 1794: Signaling system connects Paris and Lille. • 1792: Postal Act gives mail regularity throughout U.S. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  19. J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week V The Book Publishing Industry

  20. Books • Watch for necessary conditions for media evolution • Production technology • Literate audience(s) • Distribution system • Changes in the Infosphere J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  21. Some – SOME – important terms • acquisitions editor: recruits and signs new authors and titles for the company’s list of books • advance on royalties: money which the publisher anticipates earning on royalties of the book • best-selling book: a title which has sold >75,000 hardcover copies, or >100,000 paperback copies • blockbuster book: a title which has sold more than 100,000 hardcover copies • book clubs: individuals can join in order to select books from the club’s catalogue, and then purchase them through the mail or via the club’s web site, often for a discounted price J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  22. An overview of the book industry Basic distinctions in the book publishing industry • Educational books • K-12 • Higher education • University presses - Sometimes crossover titles • Professional books • Consumer Books J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  23. The Association of American Publishers (AAP) Divides the consumer book market… • Trade books • Mass market paperbacks and trade paperbacks • Religious books • Book club books • Mail order books • University press books • Subscription reference books J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  24. Major trade association • American Booksellers Association http://www.bookweb.org/ • Association of American Publishershttp://www.publishers.org/industry/2002.cfm • Book industry stats J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  25. Digital “books” • Alexandria Digital Libraryhttp://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/frames1.html • Project Gutenberghttp://www.gutenberg.net/ • “Other” publishing strategieshttp://www.lulu.com/ J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  26. Industry economics Financing book publishing • Is about finding, preparing, marketing, distributing, and exhibiting books in ways that will get particular audiences to notice and buy them • Borrowing capital • Sales “on consignment” • Returns permitted J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  27. Pick it up here J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  28. Production in book publishing industry “The production of books involves finding them and preparing them for the marketplace” • Production at a trade press • Royalties • Bestseller sales status • Blockbuster sales status • Production at a university press • Different pressures mean different approaches • Book production in the electronic age • E-books http://www.palmdigitalmedia.com/?refid=45160 J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  29. Ethical pitfalls in book publishing • Plagiarism • “Borrowing” story and/or plot ideas • The origins of Haley’s “ROOTS” http://www.galegroup.com/free_resources/bhm/bio/haley_a.htm • Also:http://www.martinlutherking.org/roots.html • WWW.betterwhois.com Insert “martinlutherking.org” Who owns it • Stormfront Inc Go to www.stormfront.org page? J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  30. Ethical pitfalls in book publishing • “Historian Ambrose sorry for copying phrases”http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/news/2002/2002_01_06_ambrose.html J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  31. Reducing the risks of failure during the production process • Conducting prepublication research • Hiring authors with positive track records • Offering potential authors advances on royalties J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  32. Distribution in the book industry Getting the right number of books to the right customers • The role of wholesalers in the distribution process • Assessing a title’s popularity • The size of the book’s print run • The content of reviews about the book in the media • The scope of the book’s marketing plan J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  33. Exhibition in the book industry • Exhibition varies widely by the type of book being sold • Exhibition in textbook publishing • El-hi textbook adoptions vs. college textbook adoptions • The strategy of new editions • Exhibition via bookstores • Large chain bookstores vs. small independent bookstores • Exhibition via computers and the web (Vistica) • Each year, more book-buyers doing web buys for books, CDs to DVDs to e-books. Maybe. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003

  34. J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 2002______________________________Spring 2003