Biology 484 – Ethology Chapter 9 – Evolution of Communication
Chapter 9 Opener: When a bull elk bugles, other males listen Communication can be between individuals, groups, or even different species.
9.1 The pseudopenis of the female spotted hyena can be erected The female spotted hyena displays her pseudopenis in an erect state as a form of greeting ceremony.
9.2 Concentrations of testosterone in male and female spotted hyenas (Part 1)
9.2 Concentrations of testosterone in male and female spotted hyenas (Part 2)
9.3 A cost of the pseudopenis for female spotted hyenas The pseudopenis in the female may be helpful in certain species specific forms of communication, but it results in a high cost associated with reproduction.
9.4 Competition for food among spotted hyenas may favor highly aggressive individuals In a comparison of the extra androgen hypothesis and the aggression hypothesis, the aggression hypothesis is currently best supported.
9.5 Dominance greatly advances female reproductive success in the spotted hyena The higher the mother’s social status, the greater the survival of her offspring.
9.6 Ultrasonic communication The male whistling moth communicates via ultrasonic calls produced by striking hard, knobby “castanet” wing structures together.
9.7 Evolution of a sensory system The area of the sensory nerve labeled as “b1” shows the difference between the two moths. The saturniid “b1” innervates to relay information about the hindwing. The noctuid moth, which *can* hear, uses the “b1” to innervate to the tympanic membrane to conduct vibratory sound to the CNS.
9.8 Arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions (Part 1)
9.8 Arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions (Part 2)
9.9 Evolutionary precursors of insect wings? This extinct insect (a stonefly like insect) may be providing a clue to how the gill plates may have evolved into wings in many forms of insects.
9.10 A surface-skimming stonefly This particular species of stonefly displays wings, but the wins are not for flight in the traditional sense. Instead, it uses the wings somewhat like how we use a sail on a sailboat. It is used to capture wind and propel the insect along the surface.
9.11 A possible evolutionary pathway from swimming to full flight in the stoneflies Different species of stonefly with different possible velocities show a possible mechanism for evolution of flight.
9.12 An ancestral signal has been co-opted in some bowerbirds “Skraa” is the signal that originated for aggression but has been used for other activities as well in some species.
9.13 Sensory exploitation and the evolution of a courtship signal in Neumania papillator The water mite female sits in a predatory position while the male moves its leg to create vibrations like a prey item.
9.15 A female cichlid fish (left) is attracted to the anal fin of a male by the orange spots on the fin
Parental Care Behaviors in the convict cichlid, Chiclosoma nigrofasciatum: Mouthing Spitting Finding Digging Feeding Aggressive Behavior to Mate Attack Conspecifics Fanning Hovering None of the Above
9.17 Sexual preferences for orange spots match foraging preferences by female guppies
9.18 The response of least auklets to three novel artificial signals
9.19 Receivers can respond to an ancestral signal not present in their species
9.22 The panda principle is evident in the sexual behavior of a parthenogenetic whiptail lizard
9.23 A group of ravens feeding on a carcass to which they were attracted by a yelling companion
9.25 Predation risk has affected the evolution of begging calls in warblers (Part 1)
9.25 Predation risk has affected the evolution of begging calls in warblers (Part 2)
9.26 Testosterone affects begging rate and feeding rate in black-headed gull chicks
9.28 The European cuckoo chick’s begging call matches that of four baby reed warblers (Part 1)
9.28 The European cuckoo chick’s begging call matches that of four baby reed warblers (Part 2)
9.29 The cuckoo’s begging calls stimulate more frequent feeding by its host parents
9.35 Threat displays are energetically demanding in the side-blotched lizard (Part 1)
9.35 Threat displays are energetically demanding in the side-blotched lizard (Part 2)
9.37 Antler span in two New Guinean fly species provides accurate information about body size