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Biology 484 – Ethology Chapter 9 – Evolution of Communication. Chapter 9 Opener: When a bull elk bugles, other males listen. Communication can be between individuals, groups, or even different species. 9.1 The pseudopenis of the female spotted hyena can be erected.
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Chapter 9 – Evolution of Communication
Communication can be between individuals,
groups, or even different species.
The female spotted hyena displays her pseudopenis in an erect state as a form of greeting ceremony.
The pseudopenis in the female may be helpful in certain species specific forms of communication, but it results in a high cost associated with reproduction.
In a comparison of the extra androgen hypothesis and the aggression hypothesis,
the aggression hypothesis is currently best supported.
The higher the mother’s social status, the greater the survival of her offspring.
The male whistling moth communicates via ultrasonic calls produced by striking hard, knobby “castanet” wing structures together.
The area of the sensory nerve labeled as “b1” shows the difference between the two moths.
The saturniid “b1” innervates to relay information about the hindwing.
The noctuid moth, which *can* hear, uses the “b1” to innervate to the tympanic membrane to conduct vibratory sound to the CNS.
This extinct insect (a stonefly like insect) may be providing a clue to how the gill plates may have evolved into wings in many forms of insects.
This particular species of stonefly displays wings, but the wins are not for flight in the traditional sense. Instead, it uses the wings somewhat like how we use a sail on a sailboat. It is used to capture wind and propel the insect along the surface.
Different species of stonefly with different possible velocities show a possible mechanism for evolution of flight.
“Skraa” is the signal that originated for aggression but has been used for other activities as well in some species.
The water mite female sits in a predatory position while the male moves its leg to create vibrations like a prey item.
Parental Care Behaviors in the convict cichlid, Chiclosoma nigrofasciatum:
Aggressive Behavior to Mate
None of the Above