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Welcome to Dr. Rathman ’ s Biology 156 Class !!!. 1 st March: Part I Intro. Lecture. Introductions Course Syllabus Rules and Procedures Lab Safety Notes Break. 2. Introductions. Myself The Class: Biology 156 Human Biology for Allied Health Name Plates. Be Creative !!!. Dr. Rathman.

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slide1

Welcome to Dr. Rathman’s

Biology 156 Class !!!

1 st march part i intro lecture
1st March: Part IIntro. Lecture
  • Introductions
  • Course Syllabus
  • Rules and Procedures
  • Lab Safety Notes
  • Break

2

introductions
Introductions
  • Myself
  • The Class: Biology 156 Human Biology for Allied Health
  • Name Plates

Be Creative !!!

all about me
All About Me !!!

Robin J. Rathman, Ph.D.

education
Education

University of Delaware

University of Arizona

Washington State University

peace corps volunteer
Peace Corps Volunteer

Western Samoa

1981 to 1983

research scientist entomologist
Research ScientistEntomologist

University of Hawaii

University of Arizona

2008 present
2008...present

Biology Teacher at Cienega HS

slide11
Adjunct Biology Instructor

Pima Community College

East Campus

introductions1
Introductions
  • Myself
  • The Class: Biology 156
  • Index Card Name Plates

Be Creative !!!

slide13

Course Syllabus

  • Read through Syllabus
  • On Receipt of Syllabus Page:
    • Add:
    • Your Name
    • Your Major
    • List Previous Biology Classes
    • Do You Work Full Time ?
bio156in human biology for allied health
Bio156IN – Human Biology for Allied Health

Section code: CRN# 21289

Saturday, Sunday 8 am – 4.30 pm

Dr Robin Rathman

Email: rrathman@pima.edu

Class website:http://ecc.pima.edu/~rrathman

textbook lab worksheets lecture notes and homework questions
Textbook, Lab worksheets, Lecture notes and Homework questions

Textbook:Human Anatomy & Physiology 8th ed. Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn

Lab manual:

  • Purchase at Bookstore
  • YOU MUST BRING THE RELEVANT BLANK LAB WORKSHEET TO CLASS

Lecture notes:

  • I will post pdf files of lecture slides to the webpage

IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO COME TO CLASS PREPARED…

grading
Grading

Grading Summary: Your total percentage will be assigned a grade as follows:

  • Exams (3: 25 pts each) 75 pts
  • Quizzes (3: 15 pts each 45pts
  • Lab activities (13: 5 pts each) 65 pts
  • Written Assignments (13: 5 pts each) 65 pts
  • Participation (10 pts per week) 50 pts

===============================

  • Total300 pts
communication
Communication
  • Class web page:

http://ecc.pima.edu/~rrathman

  • Email: rrathman@pima.edu
  • Office Hours –

You need to approach me during class to make arrangements for us to meet before or after class. I can meet after class for up to 30 mins as needed. I can also meet before class.

class rules
Class Rules
  • P1: Be prompt
  • P2: Be prepared
  • P3: Be polite
safety
Safety

You should:

  • Wear goggles in the lab
  • Wear closed toe shoes in the lab
lab safety rules
Lab Safety Rules
  • Video on Lab Safety
  • Notes
march 1st part 2
March 1st: Part 2
  • Icebreaker
  • Science Knowledge Survey
  • Notes: What Science Is/Is Not
  • Notes: Hierarchy of Life
  • Lab 1: Checks Lab
  • Break

24

icebreaker
Icebreaker
  • With a partner, communicate 5 things about yourself without speaking or writing (drawing pictures is ok). Switch roles.
  • Everyone will introduce their partner verbally. Partner can make corrections and fill-in missing details
pseudo science

What science is not.

Pseudo-science
  • is a body of knowledge that claims to be “scientific” (i.e. provide insight into the physical world) but fails to comply with the scientific method
  • may deliberately deceive the public for political or financial gain.
  • often makes statements that cannot be tested.
  • often makes claims without supporting experimental evidence.
  • often ignores contradicting experimental results.
examples of pseudo science

What science is not.

Examples of pseudo-science
  • Extrasensory perception
  • Astrology
  • UFO’s & Alien abductions
  • Creationism
slide32

What is science?

Science is…

  • A way of knowing about the natural world & a method for solving problems
  • A process designed to reduce the chance of being misled so as to find the most probable answer
    • Science does not “prove” something to be true…

Different fields ask questions about different types of natural processes.

slide33

What is biology?

Biology is…

slide34

What is biology?

Biology is…

  • The scientific study of life.
  • Biology is defined by life level’s of organization, which extend from tiny molecules to the entire living planet.
slide36

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Biosphere:

all of the environments on Earth that support life.

Ecosystem:

all organisms living in a particular area (i.e. rainforest ecosystem)

And…

all nonliving physical components of the environment that affect the organisms (soil, water, air, etc.)

slide37

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Community:

all the organisms in an area

Population:

An interacting group of individuals of the same species*

*Species – where’s the dictionary?

slide38

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Organism:

An individual living thing

question
Question…

False True ?

  • A saguaro cactus is an organism?
  • Those goldfish are a population?
  • We are a population?
  • Together, the goldfish and we are a population?
question1
Question…

False True ?

  • A saguaro cactus is an organism? TRUE
  • Those goldfish are a population? TRUE
  • We are a population? TRUE
  • Together, the goldfish and we are a population? FALSE, a community.
slide43
Organ System:

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Name an organ system in the human body.

slide44
Organ System:

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions

Human organ systems:

Nervous

Cardiovascular

Urinary

Skeletal

Muscular

Integumentary

Endocrine

Lymphatic and Immune

Respiratory

Digestive

Reproductive

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

slide45

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Organ:

A structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions.

Tissue:

A cooperative unit of many similar cells that perform a specific function within a multicellular organism

slide46

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Cell:

A basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane; the fundamental structural unit of life.

slide47

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Molecule:

A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

slide48

Life’s Hierarchy from Top to Bottom

Atom:

The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element

Atom

the checks lab
The Checks Lab
  • Directions: each team will be given an envelope with 16 checks inside. Do not look at the checks until I say so
  • Remove 4 of the checks and place them on the lab table…Don’t show the checks to the other groups
  • Read the information on the 4 checks and try to formulate a tentative hypothesis to explain the storyline
  • This is your original hypothesis. Record on the worksheet
the checks lab1
The Checks Lab
  • Remove 4 more checks and formulate a 2nd hypothesis…to explain the storyline. Record this on the worksheet
  • Remove 2 final checks and formulate a 3rd hypothesis… to explain the storyline. Record this on the worksheet.
  • Don’t remove any more checks
the checks lab2
The Checks Lab
  • Meet with other groups to compare data…
  • Formulate a final hypothesis based upon all available data. This hypothesis should explain all the events in the life of the person who wrote the checks
  • Share final hypothesis with the class
writing assignment
Writing Assignment
  • Answer questions on the worksheet and turn in with group member names
what have we done how have we done it
What Have we done ?How Have we done it ?
  • Experienced the true nature of science
  • Evidence can be confusing, conflicting, seemingly random…
  • Scientific explanations are only tentative. New discoveries may cause us to change our hypotheses
march 1 st part iii process of science
March 1st: Part III Process of Science
  • Scientific Method Notes
  • Strange Case of BeriBeri
  • Scientific Method Lab
  • Break
the process of science
The process of science
  • Involves:
    • critical thinking
    • evaluation and assimilation of ideas and information
    • observation
  • Results in:
    • solutions to problems
    • explanation of events that occur in nature
discovery science
Discovery Science

e.g. sequencing the human genome

  • Descriptive
  • Observation and measurement
  • Inductive reasoning
    • the process of thinking in which a conclusion is made based on observation
hypothesis driven science
Hypothesis-Driven Science
  • The observations of discovery science stimulate inquiring minds to ask questions and seek explanations
  • A formal process of inquiry based on the scientific method
  • Deductive reasoning
what is a hypothesis
What is a hypothesis?
  • A hypothesis is:
    • Based on previous knowledge
    • Not fact
    • Meant to be tested and challenged
    • Meant to be refined
    • We all use them in everyday life
to evaluate a hypothesis you need
To evaluate a hypothesis you need:
  • Accurate data
  • Method to analyze the data
what makes a good hypothesis
What makes a good hypothesis
  • Testable
  • Unbiased
  • Verifiable
  • Account for all available data
null and alternate hypotheses
Null and Alternate Hypotheses
  • Null hypothesis: assumes that there are no differences in the outcomes
  • Alternate hypothesis: makes a prediction about the direction of difference in the outcomes
controlled experiments
Controlled Experiments
  • Variables are factors that influence the outcome of an experiment
  • In a controlled experiment there should be only one experimental variable
  • All other variables should be held constant
theory
Theory
  • A theory is a logical explanation or model based on observation, facts, hypotheses, experimentation, and reasoning that attempts to explain a range of natural phenomena. Theories are constantly subject to testing, modification, and refutation as new evidence and ideas emerge. Theories also have predictive capabilities that guide further investigation.
scientific method
Scientific Method
  • It is essential to understand what is and is not possible to learn through the process of science
  • Science cannot answer questions about morality, faith or values
  • Science can address questions about the natural world
  • We are going to incorporate the scientific process into our labs throughout the semester
slide71

Scientific Method In Action:

The Strange Case of BeriBeri

How Penicillin Was Discovered

scientific method in action
Scientific Method In Action:
  • The Strange Case of BeriBeri
    • Problem
    • Hypothesis
    • How was the Hypothesis Tested ?
    • Support or Reject ?
    • New Hypothesis
scientific method in action1
Scientific Method In Action:
  • Alexander Fleming and Penicillium
    • Problem
    • Hypothesis
    • How was the Hypothesis Tested ?
    • Support or Reject ?
    • New Hypothesis
penicillin inhibits staphylococcus aureus
Penicillin Inhibits
Staphylococcus aureus

Penicillium mold secrets

the antibiotic

penicillin which inhibits the

growth of the bacteria

scientific method lab objectives
Scientific Method Lab Objectives
  • Learn the steps of the scientific method and how they relate to problem solving
  • Practice applying the scientific method to a problem
  • Define: observation, hypothesis, experimental design, analysis, conclusion, bias
exercise 1 using the scientific method
Exercise 1: Using the Scientific Method
  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Results
  • Analysis
  • Conclusion
exercise 2 designing your own experiment
Exercise 2: Designing Your Own Experiment
  • Observation
  • Hypothesis
  • Experiment
  • Results
  • Analysis
  • Conclusion
review question
Review Question
  • In your own words describe the scientific method
  • Which of the 3 statements cannot be tested with the scientific method ?
  • What are the limitations of the scientific method ?
scientific method blood flow
Scientific Method & Blood Flow
  • Introduction
    • In this lab you will form a hypothesis, conduct experiments and collect and analyze data
    • Who was William Harvey ???
william harvey
William Harvey
  • He discovered that blood flowed or circulated through the human body
video blood flow theory
Video: Blood Flow Theory
  • Summarize in your notebook:
    • What was the prevailing theory about blood flow in the 17th century
    • Explain the new theory proposed by William Harvey ?
    • What implications did this have for medicine ?
what is your pulse rate
What is your “pulse rate” ?
  • A measure of how frequently your heart is pumping blood through your body
  • What affects pulse rate ???
blood flow lab
Blood Flow Lab
  • Measure resting heart rate
  • Form a hypothesis and test one of the following:
    • Heart rate standing
    • Heart rate holding breath
blood flow lab1
Blood Flow Lab
  • Prediction: How does standing up or holding your breath affect heart rate?
  • Observations
  • Explanation !
materials and procedure
Materials and Procedure
  • Groups of 4 students (Assigned groups)
    • All members of lab group need to complete 2 data tables and answers all lab questions (in notebooks).
    • Lab Group Assignments
        • Materials- get lab sheets, timer, calculator
        • Research Director-
        • Timer
        • Clean-up- puts materials away
questions
Questions
  • Question 1 (your hypothesis)
  • Conclusions (Q 1-3)
  • Rubric-
    • 2 completed data tables
    • Answers to all questions (complete sentences)
class data
Class Data
  • Resting Heart Rate
  • Heart Rate Standing
  • Heart Rate Holding Breath
the mystery box
The Mystery Box
  • Goal: each team is to make a prediction about what you will see when you open the box.
  • You will have to make hypotheses, run tests, record results, draw conclusions and report your predictions to the class before opening the box…
experiments
Experiments
  • Design experiments that will give you clues as to the content of the box
  • Is shaking the box an experiment ???
test of a hypothesis example
Test of a HypothesisExample
  • Hypothesis: the object is round
  • Test Performed: Tilt box, listen as object moves
  • Observations: There is a smooth noise ending in “tock“ as the object hits the side of the box.
  • Conclusion: The object is round
writing assignment1
Writing Assignment
  • Write down your box number
  • Work for 5-10 minutes and try to come to an agreement as to what you will see inside the box
  • Describe your “experiment” using the “hypothesis”, “test”, “result”, “conclusion” terminology
after 5 minutes
After 5 minutes…
  • Trade boxes with another team that was far away and could not hear your discussion
  • Repeat the experimental process and again describe your “experiment” using the “hypothesis”, “test”, “result”, “conclusion” terminology.
what have we done how have we done it1
What Have we done ?How Have we done it ?
  • What are common causes of error ?
  • Is luck involved ?
  • Did all team members agree on every conclusion ?
  • How is this activity a model for every properly done scientific study ?
1st june part 3
1st June: Part 3
  • Lecture Notes for Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation
  • Reading Assignment/Homework/Lab for Wednesday
  • Scientific Method in Action
  • The Check’s Lab

99

notes chapter 1
Notes: Chapter 1
  • The Human Body: An Orientation

I. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

II. Levels of Structural Organization

III. Maintaining Life

IV. Homeostasis

homework
HOMEWORK
  • Purchase Textbook $$$ (Edition 8)
  • Bring Lab Manual to Class
  • Complete “Scientific Method in Action”
  • Assigned Reading for Wednesday:
    • Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation (pages 1-11)
    • Lab 1: Scientific Method
slide102

Scientific Method In Action:

The Strange Case of BeriBeri

How Penicillin Was Discovered