Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.01: Summarize the physiological needs of animals for growth and reproduction.
Physiological Needs of Animals • Food/ Nutrients • Animals CANNOT produce their own food • Must consume other living organisms for energy • Respiration • Converting sugars to chemical energy • Occurs in the mitochondria • Some nutrients can be absorbed through environmental conditions- i.e.: sunlight
Physiological Needs of Animals • Oxygen • Usually absorbed by animals from the air • Occasionally absorbed through water or other means (ex- fish) • All animals are AEROBIC • Aka- they will die without oxygen
Physiological Needs of Animals • Water • Other than air, the single most important factor in the survival of all animals • Animals can only last a few days at most without water, though they can last days without food.
Physiological Needs of Animals • Other Important Inorganic Nutrients • Vitamins • B12, A, E, C, etc. • Minerals • Calcium, Phosphorus, etc.
Immune System Characteristics • Lymph System • In advanced animals • Utilizes white blood cells and antibodies to attack any antigens in the blood of an organism • Vaccines help the body form antibodies more quickly, while under less stress
Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.02: Analyze the impact of biotechnology on animal disease prevention, diagnosis, and management
Animal Disease Diagnosis • ELISA tests • Utilize antigens to determine the presence of antibodies for a given pathogen in a blood sample • Antibodies indicate the presence of a particular pathogen being fought • The tests are usually produced from antigens extracted from research animals
Animal Disease Diagnosis • Bacterial Infections • Are tested in animals by biotechnology by culturing samples in an incubator • Different agar medias can be used to determine the presence of different bacteria upon examination after growth
Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment • Biotechnology has enabled researchers to produce animals with genetic resistance to many pathogens • Use gene segments from naturally resistant organisms • Find the gene in sharks that makes them resistant to cancer for use in humans • Produce animals with gene segments coding for the production of proteins to attack potential parasitic organisms
Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment • The production of antibodies in one organism for use in another is an important biotechnology technique used in vaccines • Jumpstarts the immune system of an animal • Also used in humans
Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment • The utilization of genes coding for the production of certain medical compounds (including antibiotics) in a variety of livestock enables agriculturalists to • Provide preventative medication in semi-controlled doses to populations on a large scale
Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.03: Discuss the role of genetic engineering and biotechnology on improving animal breeding
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding • Artificial Insemination • Process of extracting and diluting semen from a male animal for use in a female animal • Allows for outstanding genetic characteristics to be spread through a population rapidly with minimal expense and high success • One ejaculate can produce more than 60 semen straws in cattle and horses
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding • Knockout Animals • Used to determine the function of specific genes, by creating animals without these genes
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding • Cloning • Rarely used in animals • Expensive and large amounts of tissue damage • Used for research or to preserve the most outstanding traits and characteristics • Usually requires the use of specialized sex cells, though recent advancements with enucleation have led to applications for cloning other cells
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding • In Vitro Fertilization • Process involving the removal of embryos from a female for fertilization and insertion into surrogate mothers for development • Expensive and chancy (embryos could be rejected by the surrogates) • Many haploid cells and embryos may be destroyed
Biotechnology Techniques in Animal Breeding • In Vitro Fertilization • A more common method is transferring fertilized eggs from a super-ovulated female to other females • One female can produce many times more offspring
Problems with Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction • Genetic Diversity • Could possibly decrease with increased use of biotechnology • Less diversity in breeds/ species • Most important negative aspect of increased use of biotechnology
Problems with Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction • Expense/ Technical Knowledge • Some processes can easily be completed on the farm • Many techniques still require expensive laboratory equipment or facilities.
Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA011.04: Evaluate the function of hormones in animal growth and body regulation
Function of Animal Hormones • Control animal growth and behavior • Initiate physiological responses necessary for the reproduction of animals • Located in specialized glands throughout the body • Pituitary gland, thyroid gland
Function of Animal Hormones • Anabolic Steroids • Specialized hormones that are partially responsible for muscle growth and development • Even with prolonged use, steroid use in animals has little effect on muscle and bone • USDA and FDA have approved the use of low levels of hormones in beef cattle, dairy cattle, and hogs • HORMONE USE IN POULTRY IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED
Examples of Animal Hormones • Bovine Somatotropine (BST) • Naturally occurring hormone in dairy cows that controls the process of milk production • Extra BST produced by bacteria can be injected into dairy cattle to increase milk production
Examples of Animal Hormones • Hormones important in sexual reproduction and characteristics • Estrogen • Produced in large quantities in females • Feminine characteristics • Controls the menstrual cycle • Testosterone • Common in varying levels in males • Can lead to aggression- castration
Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA012.01: Practice biotechnology techniques utilized in animal breeding.
Performing Artificial Insemination • Analyzing the breeding potential of an animal • Utilizes EPDs • Likelihood that an offspring will possess the same beneficial characteristics of the parent
Performing Artificial Insemination • Semen Collection/ Analysis • Semen is collected from male animals either by hand or through the use of an artificial vagina • Sample is analyzed to measure concentration and test motility/ viability • Motility- movement of individual sperm cells • Viability- # or % of active and functional sperm cells in a sample
Performing Artificial Insemination • Semen Collection/ Analysis • Sample is then divided into 80+ straws and flash frozen for long term storage • Extension solutions- semen can be diluted and stored for long periods of time • Semen can remain viable for over 30 years • Sperm can be sexed, but it requires expensive equipment utilizing lasers: can measure larger amounts of genetic material in female sperm cells
Performing Artificial Insemination • Monitoring and Prepping the Female • Female is monitored to predict time of ovulation • Can use hormones to induce ovulation in an entire population or herd • “Standing” is a good sign that ovulation is close • If timing is not correct, artificial insemination is useless because fertilization won’t happen
Performing Artificial Insemination • Thawing Semen • Straws should be stored in a container using liquid nitrogen to maintain subzero temperatures • Straws should be quickly removed from the container, shaken, an immediatedly placed in a water bath at 99 F for 15 seconds • Shaking removes water from the exterior to avoid breaking the seal
Performing Artificial Insemination • Inseminating the Female • Most methods utilize a specialized gun to deliver the semen from the straw to the female • The inseminator (that’s the person) inserts the gun into the vagina of the female, through the cervix, to release the semen into the uterus • The other hand of the inseminator is gloved and inserted into the rectum to palpate the location of the cervix and guide the gun through without damage
Performing In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer • Gathering Eggs • In Vitro- Eggs are usually removed from the ovaries in large quantities through simple surgery • Embryo Transfer- Eggs are fertilized in the uterus of the female • Female given hormone to induce super-ovulation • During ovulation, the female is inseminated (results in many viable embryos) • A special catheter is used to take out the fertilized eggs from the womb and into surrogate mothers
Performing In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer • Benefits of In Vitro Fertilization • Requires the smallest amount of semen • Ensures the production of viable embryos, which can be stored indefinitely • Often used in cloning because the sperm or egg can be genetically manipulated prior to fertilization
Animal Science and Biotechnology Objective BA012.02: Trace the process of cloning in animals
Cloning History • First animal cloned was a tadpole in 1957 • First animal cloned from diploid cells was Dolly the sheep in 1996 • In 2002, a private company claimed to have successfully cloned the first human child
Animal Cloning Process • The simplest method is the division of fertilized eggs (embryos) • All methods are expensive and result in large losses of developing embryos • Dolly was the only success out of 300+ attempts
Animal Cloning Process • Most require the use of sex cells to obtain genetic material • Under normal conditions, diploid cells in animals rarely differentiate • Dolly was cloned from DNA removed from a mammary cell placed into an enucleated egg
Animal Cloning Process • Tools • Micromanipulator is the most important tool • Used to divide cells, remove DNA, enucleate cells, and reinsert DNA
Animal Cloning Issues • Most animal clones produced are not “true clone” since their production utilizing enucleated eggs DOES NOT alter all nucleic acids • Clones retain the mitochondrial DNA of the original egg
Animal Cloning Issues • Environmental factors limit the effectiveness of clones in producing exact physical replicas of animals • Clones may have identical DNA, yet have different color patterns, be a different size, and exhibit different mental/physical characteristics depending on ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS