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Chapter 21 Review. Section 1 Short Answer: 1. What were the causes of World War I?

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Section 1 Short Answer:

1. What were the causes of World War I?

Imperialism - Europe competed with trade in Africa, Asia, Pacific; assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; alliance system between central powers and allied powers; unrest in Serbia (no self-determination, controlled by Austria Hungary, Serbian nationalism); militarism - building up of armies, glorification of military

2. Why was World War I deadlier than any previous war?

Many new inventions - deadly gases, airplanes, machine guns; trench warfare - resulted in deadly stalemate; heavy artillery

3. Why did the United States enter the war?

British encouragement; Zimmerman telegram - attempt at German pact with Mexico; sinking of Lusitania; Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare; to protect U.S. profits; Russian Revolution - didn't want to join sides with a dictator

Section 1 Vocabulary:

1. Militarism - glorification/building of the military; many Balkan and German nations built up militaries

2. Nationalism - pride in one's nation or ethnic group; boosted tensions, led to assassination of Archduke Ferdinand which started the war

3. Stalemate - deadlock (no one wins); three years no victory for either side on the western front(between France and Germany)

4. Trench warfare - soldiers fire on one another from opposing lines of dug out trenches; prolonged the war, no way to gain advantage on the western front

5.Propaganda - spread of information designed to win support for a given cause; British used propaganda to win American support; boost morale on homefront; to push people to support the war, perform certain actions, etc.

Section 2 Short Answer:

1. What steps did the United States government take to prepare the nation for war?

Congress established draft to build up the army; encouraged donations; slogans and propaganda to boost morale; had factories make weapons, uniforms; education for soldiers

2. What measures did the government take to control the wartime economy?

meatless mondays, wheatlesswednesdays, conservation of food; clothing factories to make cammo for military; issued lbierty bonds to support war; hired women and africanamericans to work in place of men

Section 2 Vocabulary:

1. Mobilize - to prepare for war; US had to mobilize when entering world war I

2. Illiterate - unable to read or write; made gov't realize they had to educate their soldiers

Section 3 Short Answer:

1. How did the arrival of American troops in Europe affect the course of the war?

Well rested, fresh troops; Germany was winning, helped turn the tide; stopped the march on paris; boosted morale; brought ammo and supplies

2. What setbacks did the Allies face in 1917 and 1918?

Russian Revolution, russia pulls out of the war - Germany moves troops to western front - attacks paris; Germany sank many allied vessels; Germans broke through allied lines

3. Explain the agreement that ended the fighting.

Germany stopped fighting - no fresh troops, running out of supplies, unlike allies who had the support of America; calls for an armistice; Britain and France want a harsh armistice with destruction of German forces

Section 3 Vocabulary:

1. Communism - economic and political system based on the idea that social classes and the right to private property should be eliminated - all work for the state, everything government run; led by Lenin in Russia; caused Russia to pull out of World War I; made other allies war of Russia

2. Armistice - a halt in the fighting that allows peace talks to begin; Germany wanted a swift end to the war

Section 4 Short Answer:

1. What was Wilson’s plan for a just and lasting peace?

14 points - ways to prevent war; self-determination for European countries; League of nations - way to bring nations together to resolve problems diplomatically (avoiding war)

2. How did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany?

Made Germany pay reparations to all damaged nations; took German and Austrian colonies; disarmed Germany, made them give up arms, military, u-boats, etc

3. How did the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations disappoint Woodrow Wilson?

Europe accepted league but not many joined (not even the US); harsh punishment opened deeper wound in Germany; US rejected the Treaty of Versailles because of the provision of the League of Nations - US didn't want League to interfere with US economic interests abroad

Section 4 Vocabulary:

1. Self-determination - right of a nation to decide its own form of government; one of Wilson's plans in 14 points, applied only to European nations, not colonies

2. Reparations - payments to cover war damages; helped military recover faster, Germany paid them - led them into depression, built resentment - eventually will help lead to WWII