Chapter 21 Review. Section 1 Short Answer: 1. What were the causes of World War I?
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1. What were the causes of World War I?
Imperialism - Europe competed with trade in Africa, Asia, Pacific; assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; alliance system between central powers and allied powers; unrest in Serbia (no self-determination, controlled by Austria Hungary, Serbian nationalism); militarism - building up of armies, glorification of military
2. Why was World War I deadlier than any previous war?
Many new inventions - deadly gases, airplanes, machine guns; trench warfare - resulted in deadly stalemate; heavy artillery
3. Why did the United States enter the war?
British encouragement; Zimmerman telegram - attempt at German pact with Mexico; sinking of Lusitania; Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare; to protect U.S. profits; Russian Revolution - didn't want to join sides with a dictator
1. Militarism - glorification/building of the military; many Balkan and German nations built up militaries
2. Nationalism - pride in one's nation or ethnic group; boosted tensions, led to assassination of Archduke Ferdinand which started the war
3. Stalemate - deadlock (no one wins); three years no victory for either side on the western front(between France and Germany)
4. Trench warfare - soldiers fire on one another from opposing lines of dug out trenches; prolonged the war, no way to gain advantage on the western front
5.Propaganda - spread of information designed to win support for a given cause; British used propaganda to win American support; boost morale on homefront; to push people to support the war, perform certain actions, etc.
1. What steps did the United States government take to prepare the nation for war?
Congress established draft to build up the army; encouraged donations; slogans and propaganda to boost morale; had factories make weapons, uniforms; education for soldiers
2. What measures did the government take to control the wartime economy?
meatless mondays, wheatlesswednesdays, conservation of food; clothing factories to make cammo for military; issued lbierty bonds to support war; hired women and africanamericans to work in place of men
Section 2 Vocabulary:
1. Mobilize - to prepare for war; US had to mobilize when entering world war I
2. Illiterate - unable to read or write; made gov't realize they had to educate their soldiers
1. How did the arrival of American troops in Europe affect the course of the war?
Well rested, fresh troops; Germany was winning, helped turn the tide; stopped the march on paris; boosted morale; brought ammo and supplies
2. What setbacks did the Allies face in 1917 and 1918?
Russian Revolution, russia pulls out of the war - Germany moves troops to western front - attacks paris; Germany sank many allied vessels; Germans broke through allied lines
3. Explain the agreement that ended the fighting.
Germany stopped fighting - no fresh troops, running out of supplies, unlike allies who had the support of America; calls for an armistice; Britain and France want a harsh armistice with destruction of German forces
1. Communism - economic and political system based on the idea that social classes and the right to private property should be eliminated - all work for the state, everything government run; led by Lenin in Russia; caused Russia to pull out of World War I; made other allies war of Russia
2. Armistice - a halt in the fighting that allows peace talks to begin; Germany wanted a swift end to the war
1. What was Wilson’s plan for a just and lasting peace?
14 points - ways to prevent war; self-determination for European countries; League of nations - way to bring nations together to resolve problems diplomatically (avoiding war)
2. How did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany?
Made Germany pay reparations to all damaged nations; took German and Austrian colonies; disarmed Germany, made them give up arms, military, u-boats, etc
3. How did the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations disappoint Woodrow Wilson?
Europe accepted league but not many joined (not even the US); harsh punishment opened deeper wound in Germany; US rejected the Treaty of Versailles because of the provision of the League of Nations - US didn't want League to interfere with US economic interests abroad
1. Self-determination - right of a nation to decide its own form of government; one of Wilson's plans in 14 points, applied only to European nations, not colonies
2. Reparations - payments to cover war damages; helped military recover faster, Germany paid them - led them into depression, built resentment - eventually will help lead to WWII