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Identification of Terrorist Attacks

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IFSTA Essentials 5 th ed. Ch. 22 pages 1,184-1,191. Identification of Terrorist Attacks. The Threat. OK City. Spain. Algiers. Indonesia. Birmingham. Critical Differences. Critical Differences. Different from Hazmat incident: Accidental versus intentional Crime scenes

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Presentation Transcript
the threat
The Threat

OK City





critical differences1
Critical Differences
  • Different from Hazmat incident:
    • Accidental versus intentional
    • Crime scenes
    • Size and complexity
    • Number of casualties
    • Presence of extremely hazardous materials
critical differences2
Critical Differences
  • Dangers:
    • Armed resistance
    • Booby traps
    • Secondary devices
    • Weapons
critical differences3
Critical Differences
  • More dangers:
    • Contaminated victims
    • Structural collapse hazards
    • Presence of crime scene
critical differences4
Critical Differences
  • Two factors that complicate terrorist attacks:
    • Crime scene preservation
    • Secondary devices
indications of terrorist incident
Indications of Terrorist Incident
  • Two or more non-trauma mass casualty incidents in public locations:
    • shopping mall
    • transportation hub
    • mass transit system
    • telecommunications facility
    • office building
    • assembly occupancy
    • other public buildings
indications of terrorist incident1
Indications of Terrorist Incident
  • Other possible targets:
    • Controversial business (i.e. abortion clinic)
    • Government building (federal buildings )
    • A location with historical or symbolic significance
indications of terrorist incident2
Indications of Terrorist Incident
  • Terrorist motivation is to make a statement:
    • Socially significant structure
    • Large number of victims
question 1
Question 1

What should be done if criminal or terrorist activity is suspected at the scene of an incident?

Report it to the incident commander (IC) as quickly as possible.

question 2
Question 2

Who is primarily, not solely, responsible for the collection of evidence at a terrorist event?

Law enforcement

question 3
Question 3

Which is the lead law enforcement agency at a terrorist event?


types of terrorist attacks
Types of Terrorist Attacks
    • Each have unique indicators
    • Use monitors and detectors to determine their presence
types of terrorist attacks chemical
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Chemical
  • Chemicalwarfare agents (CBRNE) :
    • Nerve agents
    • Blister agents
    • Blood agents
    • Choking agents
    • Riot control agents
types of terrorist attacks chemical1
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Chemical
  • Nerve agents
    • Sarin (GB)
    • Soman(GD)
    • V agent (VX)
    • Tabun (GA)
types of terrorist attacks chemical2
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Chemical
  • Blister agents (Mustard)
  • Blood (AC/CK)
  • Choking agents (Chlorine/Phosgene)
  • Common industrial chemicals (TIMs/TICs)
types of terrorist attacks chemical3
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Chemical
  • On-scene warning signs:
    • Unusual containers
    • Unexplainedsudden onset of similar non-traumatic illnesses or deaths
    • Unusual odors or tastes that are out of character
    • Unexplained skin, eye, or airway irritation
    • Runny nose (rhinorrhea), disorientation, difficulty breathing, or convulsions
types of terrorist attacks chemical4
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Chemical
  • SLUDGEM (symptoms of exposure to chemical warfare nerve agents):
    • Salivation (drooling)
    • Lacrimation (tearing)
    • Urination
    • Defecation (loss of bowel control)
    • Gastrointestinal upset/aggravation (cramping)
    • Emesis (vomiting)
    • Miosis (pinpointed pupils) or Muscular twitching/spasms
types of terrorist attacks chemical5
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Chemical
  • TIM/TIC use may be identified through:
    • Occupancy types and locations
    • Container shapes
    • Hazardous materials placards, labels, and markings
    • Written resources
    • Sensory indicators
    • Use of monitoring and detection devices
types of terrorist attacks biological
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Biological
  • Biological attacks (CBRNE)
    • Ricin
    • Anthrax
    • Bubonic plague
types of terrorist attacks biological1
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Biological

Toxic substances that are living materials or obtained from living materials

Anthrax Scare of 2001: The famous “white powder” mailings

types of terrorist attacks biological2
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Biological
  • Signs and symptoms:
    • May take many days to develop
    • Unusual diseases
    • People or animals get sick or die
    • Multiple casualties with similar signs or symptoms
    • Dissemination of unscheduled or unusualspray
    • Casualty distribution aligned with wind direction
types of terrorist attacks biological3
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Biological

Emergency medical services (EMS) responders and health-care personnel may be first to realize that there has been a biological attack

types of terrorist attacks radiological
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Radiological
  • Radiological attacks (CBRNE)
    • Weapons that release radiological materials:
      • dust or powder
      • radiological dispersal device (RDD)
types of terrorist attacks radiological1
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Radiological
  • Indicators:
    • Warning, threat, or received intelligence
    • Signs and symptoms of radiation exposure
    • Radiological materials packaging abandoned
    • Suspicious packages that weigh more than they should
types of terrorist attacks radiological2
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Radiological
  • Indicators (continued):
  • Activation of radiation detection devices
  • Material that is hot or emits heat
  • Glowing material

How can it be determined that radiation is involved at an incident?

Monitoring can determine if radiation is involved.

Monitoring must be conducted at all explosive incidents.

types of terrorist attacks nuclear
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Nuclear

Nuclear attacks (CBRNE)

The intentional detonation of a nuclear weapon

types of terrorist attacks nuclear1
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Nuclear
  • Indicators:
    • Warning, threat, or received intelligence
    • Mushroom cloud
    • Exceptionally large/powerful explosion
    • Electromagnetic pulse (EMP)
types of terrorist attacks explosive1
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Explosive
  • Explosive/incendiary attacks (CBRNE)

also referred to as Bombings:

    • Majority of terrorist attacks
    • May be classified as weapons of mass destruction
    • May be used to disseminate chemical, biological, and radiological materials
    • Be alert for secondary devices
types of terrorist attacks explosive2
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Explosive
  • Indicators:
    • Warning or threat of an attack or received intelligence
    • Reports of an explosion
    • Explosion
    • Accelerant odors (gasoline smells and other similar odors)
types of terrorist attacks explosive3
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Explosive
  • Indicators (continued):
    • Multiple fires or explosions
    • Incendiary device or bomb components (such as broken glass from a Molotov cocktail or wreckage of a car bomb)
    • Unexpectedheavy burning or high temperatures
    • Unusually fast burning fires
types of terrorist attacks explosive4
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Explosive
  • Indicators (continued):
    • Unusual smoke or flame color
    • Propane or other flammable gas cylinders in unusual locations
    • Unattendedpackages/backpacks/objects left in high traffic/public areas
    • Fragmentation damage/injury
types of terrorist attacks explosive5
Types of Terrorist Attacks-Explosive
  • Indicators (continued):
    • Damage exceeding gas explosions, including shattered reinforced concrete or bent structural steel
    • Crater(s)
    • Small metal objects such as nuts, bolts, and/or nails used as shrapnel
  • Terrorist incident complicated by crime scene preservation and secondary devices.
    • Terrorist’s motivation is to make a statement:
    • Socially significant structures
    • Large number of victims
  • Situational awareness:
    • Unusual
    • Unexpected
  • We are the first on the scene
  • Be safe!