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  1. Do Now

  2. Aim: How can an immune response be a breakdown in homeostasis?

  3. Agenda • Do Now • Self-guided topics 1-5 review • Correct work using the answer key • Reflection • Castle Learning or Quizlet review

  4. Topic 1 DiabetesThe first few slides review the endocrine system and homeostasis…

  5. In the winter, what happens when the temperature in your house goes to low? Thermostat detects a decrease and sends a signal to the furnace to go on. Once the temp is back to normal the furnace turns off Feedback mechanism or loop

  6. Human organ systems maintain homeostasis by using: Feedback loops or mechanisms Feedback mechanisms

  7. What are the primary agents that the brain uses to communicate with other cells? Hormones Neurotransmitters (Nerve chemicals) Sending Signals

  8. How do cells in the body receive signals from the brain? Receptor molecules on their cell membrane Receiving Signals Receptor molecules

  9. Brain detects a decrease in temperature The brain releases chemical signals to muscles beneath the skin surface. These muscle cells receive the signal through receptor molecules and begin to shiver. Brain stops sending signal once temp is back to normal Feedback Loop Example 1 4 2 3

  10. The hormone produced by the pancreas gland to lower Blood sugar levels Insulin Protein- Long and folded molecule with a shape

  11. When the pancreas fails to produce or properly use Insulin Diabetes

  12. Type 1- Develops in children before the age of 15 Type 2- Develops in people after the age of 30 Two types of diabetes

  13. Hormone and Receptor molecule must fit in order to work Pancreas Gland Receptor molecule Hormone

  14. Hormone is not produced Receptor molecule is the wrong shape The hormone is the wrong shape Failure of hormone to work means either the

  15. When sugar levels rise the brain detects rise, then sends a signal to pancreas to release insulin. When sugar levels are normal pancreas stops secreting insulin Another living example of a feedback mechanism Feedback Inhibition

  16. Person not producing enough insulin The target cell cannot receive signal because of a defective - Receptor molecule - Hormone What could cause diabetes?

  17. Brain Pop • http://www.brainpop.com/health/diseasesinjuriesandconditions/diabetes/ • Username: bufsd • Password: bufsd

  18. Topic 2 Allergies

  19. What is an allergic reaction? Is an immune response to a harmless substance like peanuts Allergic reaction

  20. What human organ system is responsible for an allergic reaction? The immune system Explain how it works Antigens triggers the allergy

  21. Why are some people allergic to one type of food but not another? The shape of surface proteins are different Antigens are specific Walnut Peanut

  22. Topic 3 Organ Transplants

  23. Organ transplant When an organ is replaced with an organ from another person. The organ can sometimes be seen as a “foreign invader” from the immune system

  24. Cell surface proteins Transplanted organs have different or foreign antigens on their cells. This is similar to how the immune system sees a virus or bacteria cell

  25. Different cell proteins Donor cell proteins Receiver’s cell proteins These cells are not a match for an organ transplant

  26. Organ transplant rejection • Organ transplant will reject if proteins do not match • Immune system will trigger white blood cells to attack the transplanted organ

  27. Immunosuppressants Immuno - immune system suppressants - lower Immunosuppressants are drugs that lower the immune systems response to transplanted organs.

  28. Topic 4 Immune Response

  29. Bacteria are single-celled organisms. They are alive because they can carryout the characteristics of life without needing the help for another organism Bacteria

  30. How are bacterial infections treated or cured? They are treated with antibiotics prescribed by a Doctor Bacterial infections

  31. Viruses are non-cellular (not a cell) They are dead because they cannot performs] the characteristics of life without having a host. The infects to cause illness and death. Viruses

  32. What is in a vaccine that makes it effective? Dead or weakened microbe Vaccine

  33. Diseases caused by a bacteria can be cured because the bacteria can be killed. Doctors inject a person with antibiotics to kill the bacteria Viruses cannot be killed because they are NOT alive so there is NO cured for them Vaccines can PREVENT viruses from infecting organisms Cures and Treatment

  34. They are not as strong as the disease so the person does not get sick Helps organisms build a memory of antibodies. Vaccinations use dead or weakened microbes (virus) to stimulate the first production of antibodies Vaccines

  35. A dead or weaken virus is injected into an organism The immune systems recognizes the virus and synthesizes antibodies The immune system makes a memory of the virus so when the real virus (not a dead or weak one) comes it can use the antibodies to stop it immediately. Vaccine Process

  36. Topic 5 Homeostasis in Plants

  37. Stomata (One open and one closed)

  38. Guard cell opens the stomata when the plant needs nutrients and closes stomata when at equilibrium

  39. Plant Homeostasis

  40. Reflection Answer the reflection questions on the last page and then work on any missing castle learning assignments

  41. Regents Questions