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  1. Tonight’s Homework: • Read section 9.1 and do problem 12 on page 247.

  2. Covalent Bonds

  3. Covalent Bonds • The positive nucleus of one atom attracts the negative electrons of the other atom.

  4. Covalent Bonds • The atoms move closer.

  5. Covalent Bonds • If they get too close, the positive nuclei repel each other.

  6. Covalent Bonds • There is a balance point where the attraction and the repulsion cancel out.

  7. Covalent Bonds • Atoms will stay at this balance point. • They have a stable bond. • They are a molecule.

  8. Covalent Bonds • Atoms in a covalent bond don’t give away electrons or take them from other atoms. • In a covalent bond, atoms share electrons.

  9. Covalent Bonds • F F • Both atoms want one more electron.

  10. Covalent Bonds • F F • They can share these two.

  11. Covalent Bonds • F F • Now both atoms are happy.

  12. Covalent Bonds • F F • This atom has eight outer electrons.

  13. Covalent Bonds • F F • So does this one.

  14. Covalent Bonds • F F • A dot diagram for a molecule is called a Lewis structure

  15. Covalent Bonds • F-F • The pair of shared electrons • can be drawn as a line.

  16. Covalent Bonds • O O • Oxygen wants two more electrons.

  17. Covalent Bonds • O O • They’ll share this pair...

  18. Covalent Bonds • O O • …and this pair.

  19. Covalent Bonds • O O • Oxygen atoms share two pairs • of electrons.

  20. Covalent Bonds • O O • Again, both atoms seem like they have eight outer electrons.

  21. Covalent Bonds • O O • Again, both atoms seem like they have eight outer electrons.

  22. Covalent Bonds • O=O • They have a double bond, which can be drawn as two lines.

  23. Covalent Bonds • N N • Nitrogen wants three more electrons.

  24. Covalent Bonds • N N • Nitrogen wants three more electrons.

  25. Covalent Bonds • N N • A nitrogen molecule has a • triple bond.

  26. Covalent Bonds • N≡N • A nitrogen molecule has a • triple bond.

  27. Covalent Bonds • H • Hydrogen often forms covalent bonds with other elements.

  28. Covalent Bonds • H O H • Hydrogen often forms covalent bonds with other elements.

  29. Covalent Bonds • H O H • Hydrogen often forms covalent bonds with other elements.

  30. Covalent Bonds • H-O-H • Hydrogen often forms covalent bonds with other elements.

  31. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • PH3

  32. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • H-P-H • H

  33. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • H2S

  34. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • H-S-H

  35. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • HCl

  36. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • H-Cl

  37. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • CCl4

  38. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • Cl • Cl-C-Cl • Cl

  39. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • SiH4

  40. You try some! • Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule • H • H-Si-H • H

  41. Tonight’s Homework: • Read section 9.1 and do problem 12 on page 247.