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Pipelining Lessons

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  1. 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 A B C D Pipelining Lessons 6 PM 7 8 9 • Pipelining doesn’t help latency of single task, it helps throughput of entire workload • Multiple tasks operating simultaneously using different resources • Potential speedup = Number pipe stages • Pipeline rate limited by slowest pipeline stage • Unbalanced lengths of pipe stages reduces speedup • Time to “fill” pipeline and time to “drain” it reduces speedup • Stall for Dependences Time T a s k O r d e r

  2. Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr The Five Stages of Load Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 • Ifetch: Instruction Fetch • Fetch the instruction from the Instruction Memory • Reg/Dec: Registers Fetch and Instruction Decode • Exec: Calculate the memory address • Mem: Read the data from the Data Memory • Wr: Write the data back to the register file Load

  3. IFetch Dcd Exec Mem WB IFetch Dcd Exec Mem WB IFetch Dcd Exec Mem WB IFetch Dcd Exec Mem WB IFetch Dcd Exec Mem WB IFetch Dcd Exec Mem WB Conventional Pipelined Execution Representation Time Program Flow

  4. Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Ifetch Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg Exec Mem Wr Single Cycle, Multiple Cycle, vs. Pipeline Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Clk Single Cycle Implementation: Load Store Waste Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 10 Clk Multiple Cycle Implementation: Load Store R-type Pipeline Implementation: Load Store R-type

  5. Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Why Pipeline? Because the resources are there! Time (clock cycles) I n s t r. O r d e r Inst 0 Inst 1 Inst 2 Inst 3 Inst 4

  6. Can pipelining get us into trouble? • Yes:Pipeline Hazards • structural hazards: attempt to use the same resource two different ways at the same time • E.g., combined washer/dryer would be a structural hazard or folder busy doing something else (watching TV) • data hazards: attempt to use item before it is ready • E.g., one sock of pair in dryer and one in washer; can’t fold until get sock from washer through dryer • instruction depends on result of prior instruction still in the pipeline • control hazards: attempt to make a decision before condition is evaulated • E.g., washing football uniforms and need to get proper detergent level; need to see after dryer before next load in • branch instructions • Can always resolve hazards by waiting • pipeline control must detect the hazard • take action (or delay action) to resolve hazards

  7. Mem ALU Mem Mem Reg Reg ALU Mem Mem Reg Reg ALU ALU Mem Mem Reg Reg ALU Single Memory is a Structural Hazard Time (clock cycles) I n s t r. O r d e r Mem Reg Reg Load Instr 1 Instr 2 Mem Mem Reg Reg Instr 3 Instr 4 Right half highlight means read, left half write

  8. Mem ALU Mem ALU ALU Mem Control Hazard Solutions • Stall: wait until decision is clear • It’s possible to move up decision to 2nd stage by adding hardware to check registers as being read • Impact: 2 clock cycles per branch instruction => slow I n s t r. O r d e r Time (clock cycles) Mem Reg Reg Add Mem Reg Reg Beq Load Mem Reg Reg

  9. Mem ALU Mem ALU ALU Control Hazard Solutions • Predict: guess one direction then back up if wrong • Predict not taken • Impact: 2 clock cycles if wrong (right ­ 50% of time) • More dynamic scheme: history of 1 branch (­ 90%) I n s t r. O r d e r Time (clock cycles) Mem Reg Reg Add Mem Reg Reg Beq Load Mem Mem Reg Reg

  10. Mem ALU Mem ALU ALU ALU Control Hazard Solutions • Redefine branch behavior (takes place after next instruction) “delayed branch” • Impact: 0 clock cycles per branch instruction if can find instruction to put in “slot” (­ 50% of time) • As launch more instruction per clock cycle, less useful I n s t r. O r d e r Time (clock cycles) Mem Reg Reg Add Mem Reg Reg Beq Misc Mem Mem Reg Reg Load Mem Mem Reg Reg

  11. Data Hazard on r1 add r1,r2,r3 sub r4, r1,r3 and r6, r1,r7 or r8, r1,r9 xor r10, r1,r11

  12. Im ALU Im ALU Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Data Hazard on r1: • Dependencies backwards in time are hazards Time (clock cycles) IF ID/RF EX MEM WB add r1,r2,r3 Reg Reg ALU Im Dm I n s t r. O r d e r sub r4,r1,r3 Dm Reg Reg Dm Reg Reg and r6,r1,r7 Im Dm Reg Reg or r8,r1,r9 ALU xor r10,r1,r11

  13. Im ALU Im ALU Im Dm Reg Reg ALU Data Hazard Solution: • “Forward” result from one stage to another • “or” OK if define read/write properly Time (clock cycles) IF ID/RF EX MEM WB add r1,r2,r3 Reg Reg ALU Im Dm I n s t r. O r d e r sub r4,r1,r3 Dm Reg Reg Dm Reg Reg and r6,r1,r7 Im Dm Reg Reg or r8,r1,r9 ALU xor r10,r1,r11

  14. Im ALU Forwarding (or Bypassing): What about Loads • Dependencies backwards in time are hazards • Can’t solve with forwarding: • Must delay/stall instruction dependent on loads Time (clock cycles) IF ID/RF EX MEM WB lw r1,0(r2) Reg Reg ALU Im Dm sub r4,r1,r3 Dm Reg Reg

  15. 1st lw Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Pipelining the Load Instruction Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 • The five independent functional units in the pipeline datapath are: • Instruction Memory for the Ifetch stage • Register File’s Read ports (Read Register 1 and Read Register 2) for the Reg/Dec stage • ALU for the Exec stage • Data Memory for the Mem stage • Register File’s Write port (Write Register) for the Wr stage Clock 2nd lw 3rd lw

  16. Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr The Four Stages of R-type Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 • Ifetch: Instruction Fetch • Fetch the instruction from the Instruction Memory • Reg/Dec: Registers Fetch and Instruction Decode • Exec: • ALU operates on the two register operands • Update PC • Wr: Write the ALU output back to the register file R-type

  17. Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Pipelining the R-type and Load Instruction Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Clock • We have pipeline conflict or structural hazard: • Two instructions try to write to the register file at the same time! • Only one write port Ops! We have a problem! R-type R-type Load R-type R-type

  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Load Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr 1 2 3 4 R-type Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Important Observation • Each functional unit can only be used once per instruction • Each functional unit must be used at the same stage for all instructions: • Load uses Register File’s Write Port during its 5th stage • R-type uses Register File’s Write Port during its 4th stage • 2 ways to solve this pipeline hazard.

  19. Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Solution 1: Insert “Bubble” into the Pipeline Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 • Insert a “bubble” into the pipeline to prevent 2 writes at the same cycle • The control logic can be complex. • Lose instruction fetch and issue opportunity. • No instruction is started in Cycle 6! Clock Load R-type Pipeline R-type R-type Bubble

  20. Exec Ifetch Reg/Dec Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem Wr Solution 2: Delay R-type’s Write by One Cycle • Delay R-type’s register write by one cycle: • Now R-type instructions also use Reg File’s write port at Stage 5 • Mem stage is a NOOP stage: nothing is being done. 4 1 2 3 5 Mem R-type Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Clock R-type R-type Load R-type R-type

  21. Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem The Four Stages of Store Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 • Ifetch: Instruction Fetch • Fetch the instruction from the Instruction Memory • Reg/Dec: Registers Fetch and Instruction Decode • Exec: Calculate the memory address • Mem: Write the data into the Data Memory Store Wr

  22. Ifetch Reg/Dec Exec Mem The Three Stages of Beq Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 • Ifetch: Instruction Fetch • Fetch the instruction from the Instruction Memory • Reg/Dec: • Registers Fetch and Instruction Decode • Exec: • compares the two register operand, • select correct branch target address • update PC Beq Wr

  23. Pipelined Datapath Can you find a problem even if there are no dependencies? What instructions can we execute to manifest the problem?

  24. Corrected Datapath

  25. Pipeline Control

  26. Pipeline control • We have 5 stages. What needs to be controlled in each stage? • Instruction Fetch and PC Increment • Instruction Decode / Register Fetch • Execution • Memory Stage • Write Back • How would control be handled in an automobile plant? • a fancy control center telling everyone what to do? • should we use a finite state machine?

  27. Pipeline Control • Pass control signals along just like the data

  28. Datapath with Control