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Military Psychology: Overview

Military Psychology: Overview. Dr. Steven J. Kass Dr. (Major) Alan Ogle. Military 101. Rank / Grade. People. Service members Family Community. Community. Family Members. Officers. Enlisted Members. Military Psychology Defined .

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Military Psychology: Overview

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  1. Military Psychology:Overview Dr. Steven J. Kass Dr. (Major) Alan Ogle

  2. Military 101

  3. Rank / Grade

  4. People • Service members • Family • Community Community Family Members Officers Enlisted Members

  5. Military Psychology Defined Military Psychology – The study and application of psychological principles and methods to the military environment.

  6. Employment in Military Psychology • Colleges/Universities • Veteran’s Affairs (VA) • Military Hospitals • Defense Contractors • DOD Labs • Military Academies • Consulting

  7. Military Psychology Objectives • Combat Readiness • Selection & Training • Treatment • Human Performance

  8. History of Military Psychology • 1855 – US Gov’t Hospital for Insane (St. Elizabeths) to treat military psychiatric patients • 1878 – Wilhelm Wundt starts experimental psychology lab in Liepzig Germany • Notable American student – James Cattell • 1890 – James Cattell coined term “mental test” • Promoted standarization of procedures and use of norms in studying individual differences • 1892 – American Psychological Associated founded • 19 charter divisions (Military Psychology – Div 19) • 1907 – Shepard Ivory Franz (civilian research psychologist at St. Elizabeths) developed routine psych screening for patients • 1911 – Heber Butts – Navy medical officer at St. Elizabeths, published first protocol for psych screening of Navy recruits

  9. History of Military Psychology • WWI (1914-1918) - Robert Yerkes organized psychologists to test and classify recruits in war effort • Army Alpha & Beta Projects (precursor to ASVAB) • Screened out individuals deemed mentally unfit • ASVAB given to over 1.5 million annually • Walter Dill Scott – proficiency testing for 83 military jobs • 1918 first Army billet for psychologist at Walter Reed Hospital • Development of structured measures of psychopathology to efficiently screen for mental abnormalities (led to psychiatry)

  10. History of Military Psychology • World War II (1939 – 1945) • ¼ of all US psychologists engaged in military psych • 1941 Psychological Bulletin devoted entire issue to Military Psych (prior to attack on Pearl Harbor) • Human Factors Psychology (Engineering Psych) • Design of advanced weapon systems • Placement of controls in aircraft • Design of instrument displays, consoles, protective gear, combat info centers, communications equipment

  11. History of Military Psychology • 1946 – VA Hospitals • Training programs to turn out clinical psychologists to diagnose and treat veterans • APA approved pre-doctoral internships and post-doctoral fellowships • Over 50% of WWII vets in hospital were there for psychiatric reasons

  12. History of Military Psychology • Post WWII changes influences on Psychology • US funded Big 10 studies on Leadership (Illinois, Michigan, Ohio State) • Milgram’s research on obedience • Zimbardo’s prison study • Kurt Lewin’s action research (to identify and solve problems of minorities) • 1958 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) – developed in response to Sputnik • funded projects that led to such breakthoughs as: • SIMNET – simulation networking • Virtual reality • ArpaNet - Internet

  13. Domains of Military Psychology • Selection, Classification, & Assignment • Human Factors • Environmental Factors • Leadership • Individual and Group Behavior • Clinical & Consultative/Organizational Psych • Training & Education • Manpower Management Decision Making Support

  14. Military PsychologySpecialty Topics • Propaganda & Psychological Warfare • Hostage Negotiation • Women’s Role in the Military • Prisoners of War (POWs)

  15. Military PsychologyStudent Involvement • Join APA Division 19 (student discounts) • Read “Military Psychology” journal • Conduct and Present Research in Mil Psy • “Handbook of Military Psychology” • Attend Conferences/Symposia • DOD Internships/Co-ops (DOD largest employer of psychologists)

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