Psychology BSCS –II SEC A-B BBA-II
Different school of thoughts in psychology • Behaviorism: • Cognitiveism:
Fields of psychology • General psychology • Abnormal psychology • Social psychology • Comparative psychology • Developmental psychology • Educational psychology • Clinical psychology • Cognitive psychology • Industrial psychology • Personality psychology
General psychology: study of people how they think and behave. • focuses on human behavior and behavioral disorders. • Abnormal psychology:
Abnormal psychology Study the behavior of the people who do not adjust with society. • Deals with abnormal behavior • Covers broad rang of disorders • Neuroses: at small level • Psychoses: at large level
Social psychology Looks at the wide rang of social topics. • Group behavior, social perception, non verbal behavior, aggression etc.
Comparative psychology • Concern with the study of animal behavior behavior.
Developmental psychology Field of psychology looks at development through out the lifespan. Through childhood to adulthood. • Include all aspects of human growth. • How and why people change? • Physical • Emotional • Intellectual • Social • personality
Educational psychology • How people learn? • Students outcomes • Individual differences in learning ,etc.
Clinical psychology Branch of psychology concerned with, • Assessment and treatment of mental illness and • Abnormal behavior.
Cognitive psychology Branch of psychology which studies: • Mental process • How people think ,remember and learn etc.
Industrial organizational psychology • Apply psychological theories and principles to organizations • Focuses on issues such as, how to increase workplace productivity? • Study worker attitude and behavior.
Personality psychology • Looks at the patterns of thoughts, feeling and behavior that makes a person unique.
Seven Unifying Themes of Psychology Themes related to psychology as a field of study
Theme :1 Psychology is Empirical • Every one wants to understand behavior • Why some people are hard worker? • Why some are overweight?
Empiricism is What? • Knowledge should be acquired through observation. • Based on direct observation rather than on reasoning, traditional beliefs, or common sense. • Skepticism: think critically about generalizations concerning behavior. • Psychologist conduct research to test their ideas. • Are men more aggressive than women?
Theme: 2 Psychology is Theoretically Diverse • Psychologist do not set out to just collect facts. • Explain and understand what they observe. • To achieve this goal they construct theories. • Sigmund Freud’s observations about slips of the tongue, dreams, and psychological disturbances.
What is Theory? • System of inter-related ideas used to explain a set of observation. • No single theory edecuatly explain every thing about behavior. • Is the glass half empty or half full?
Theme 3: psychology evolves in a socio-historical context • Interaction exist between what happens in psychology and what happens in society. • Psychology develops in a social and historical context through trends, issues and values. • World War II • Cultural diversity
Theme 4:Behavior is Determined by Multiple Causes • Psychologists find that behavior is governed by a complex network of interacting factors. • There is multi-factorial causation of behavior. • Performance: overall intelligence, reading ability, your memory skills, your motivation, and your study skills.
Numerous situational factors, • including whether you like your psychology professor, • whether you like your assigned text, • Whether the class meets at a good time for you, • whether your work schedule is light or heavy, • whether you’re having any personal problems.
Theme :5 Behavior is Shaped by Cultural Heritage • Culture refers to the shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of community that are transmitted socially across generations
E.G. For example, • In North America, when people are invited to dinner in someone’s home, they generally show their appreciation of their host’s cooking efforts by eating all of the food they are served. In India, this behavior would be insulting to the host, as guests are expected to leave some food on their plates. The leftover food acknowledges the generosity of the host, implying that he or she provided so much food the guest could not eat it all
Theme :6 Heredity and Environment Jointly Influenced Behavior • Genetics and upbringing both influence an individual's intelligence, temperament, personality, and to many psychological disorders. • Nature versus Nurture • Leaders are born or made. • Personality and ability depend almost exclusively on an individual’s environment, J.B.WATSON • Sir Francis Galton, maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance.
Theme :7 People Experience of the World is Highly Subjective • People tend to see what they want to see or what they expect to see.
Developing Critical Thinking • Critical thinking is purposeful, reasoned, goal-directed thinking. • Involves solving problems • Formulating inferences • Working with probabilities • Making carefully thought-out decisions
e.g. • “What is the most important outcome of an education?”
Chap:2 Sensation and Perception • Sensation: Sensation refers to sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell (the 5 senses). This information is sent to our brain and that's when perception comes into play. • Perception: perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us.
Psychophysics • An area of psychology that examines how physical stimuli (such as sight or sound) are related to people’s psychological reaction to those stimuli.
Two basic question • Can people detect low intensity stimulus? • Can people discriminate between two same stimulus?
Detection: • Psychologist present low intensity stimuli and record whether people report them.
Classical psychophysics • Sensory process Approximate detection threshold • Vision A flame seen at 30 miles on dark clear night. • Hearing The tick of watch at 20 feet under quit condition. • Touch The wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a distance of ½ inch. • Smell One drop of perfume diffused into the entire volume of a three room apartment. • Taste One teaspoon of sugar in 2 litter of water.
Single detection approach • Expectation • Motivation
Bottom-up and top-down processing • Bot_om • Cons_q__nces • Un_vers_ty
Top-down processing: Top-down processing suggests that we form our perceptions starting with a larger object, concept, or idea before working our way toward more detailed information.
Bottom up • Bottom-up processing is also known as "small chunk" processing . • We attend to or perceive elements by starting with the smaller, more fine details of that element. • Building upward until we have a solid representation of it in our minds.