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Chapter 8 The Skeletal System. Skeletal system - the framework of bones and cartilage that protects organs and allows movement. Orthopedics - the preservation and restoration of the skeletal system. Overview of the Skeleton. Regions of the skeleton 1. axial skeleton forms the central axis

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chapter 8 the skeletal system
Chapter 8The Skeletal System
  • Skeletal system - the framework of bones and cartilage that protects organs and allows movement.
  • Orthopedics - the preservation and restoration of the skeletal system.
overview of the skeleton
Overview of the Skeleton
  • Regions of the skeleton
    • 1. axial skeleton forms the central axis
      • skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum and sacrum
    • 2. appendicular skeleton includes the limbs & girdles
  • Number of bones
    • 206 in typical adult skeleton
surface features of bones
Surface Features of Bones
  • 1. joint formation
  • 2. muscle attachment
  • 3. passage of nerves and blood vessels these are foramen.
axial appendicular skeleton
Axial & Appendicular Skeleton
  • Axial skeleton (yellow)
    • skull, vertebrae, ribs, sacrum & hyoid even auditory ossicles
  • Appendicular skeleton (blue)
    • pectoral girdle
    • upper extremity
    • pelvic girdle
    • lower extremity
the skull
The Skull
  • 22 bones joined together by sutures
  • Cranial bones surround cranial cavity
    • 8 bones in contact with meninges
    • Frontal, Sphenoid, Occipital, Ethmoid, (2) Temporal, (2) Parietal
  • Facial bones support teeth & form nasal cavity & orbit
    • 14 bones with no direct contact with brain or meninges
    • (2) Nasal bones, (2) Maxillae, (2) Zygomatic, (2) Lacrimal, (2)Palatine, (2) Inf. Nasal conchae, (1) Vomer, (1) Mandible
  • Sutures are movable joints* found only between skull bones:
  • 1. coronal
  • 2. sagittal
  • 3. lambdoid
  • 4. squamous

*Bone of contention, clinically skull bones do move. The anatomists say they don’t. Why?

cranial fossa
Cranial Fossa
  • 3 basins that comprise the cranial floor or base
    • anterior fossa holds the frontal lobe of the brain
    • middle fossa holds the temporal lobes of the brain
    • posterior fossa contains the cerebellum
frontal bone
Frontal Bone

Parietal Bone

A Paired Bone

temporal bone boxed ear bone
Temporal BoneBoxed Ear Bone
  • 3 parts:
    • squamous part
      • zygomatic process
    • Petrous part
      • Ear
      • styloid process for muscle attachment
    • mastoid process
      • looks like a _______
petrous portion of temporal bone
Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone
  • Houses the EAR
    • Petrous means _______
occipital bone the basic bone
Occipital BoneThe Basic Bone
  • Rear & much of base of skull
  • Foramen magnum holds spinal cord
  • Skull rests on atlas at occipital condyles
sphenoid bone the skull bone
Sphenoid BoneTHE Skull bone.
  • Lesser wing
  • Greater wing
  • Medial and lateral pterygoid processes
sphenoid bone the keystone of the skull
Sphenoid BoneTHE Keystone of the skull.
  • Body of the sphenoid
    • sella turcica (Turkish Saddle)
    • houses pituitary gland
  • Lesser wing
    • Optic foramen
  • Greater wing -- 3 foramen
    • foramen rotundum & ovale for brs. trigeminal nerve
    • foramen spinosum for meningeal artery
ethmoid bone the stinky bone
Ethmoid BoneThe Stinky Bone
  • Found between the orbital cavities
  • Forms lateral walls and roof of nasal cavity
  • Crista galli is a structure inside the cranium
  • Cribriform plate has holes for CN 1
  • Ethmoid air cells form ethmoid sinus
  • Perpendicular plate forms the superior part of nasal septum
  • Concha or turbinates on lateral wall
ethmoid bone the smelly bone
Ethmoid BoneThe Smelly Bone
  • Superior & middle concha
  • Perpendicular plate of nasal septum
  • CN 1 goes to the nose
2 maxillary bones maxium face bone
2 Maxillary Bones Maxium Face Bone
  • Forms upper jaw
  • Hold upper teeth
  • Forms inferomedial wall of orbit
  • Forms anterior 2/3’sof hard palate
    • cleft palate
zygomatic bones cheek bone
Zygomatic BonesCheek Bone
  • Forms cheekbones and lateral orbit
  • Zygomatic arch is formed from:
    • temporal process of zygomatic bone
    • zygomatic process of temporal bone
2 nasal bones
2 Nasal Bones
  • Forms bridge of nose and supports cartilages of nose
  • Often fractured by trauma to the nose

2 Lacrimal Bones

2 inferior nasal conchae
2 Inferior Nasal Conchae
  • A separate bone
  • Not a part of the ethmoid like the superior & middle concha
  • Inferior half of the nasal septum
  • Supports cartilage of nasal septum
palatine bones
Palatine Bones
  • L-shaped bone
  • Posterior 1/3 of the hard palate
  • Part of lateral nasal wall
  • Part of the orbital floor
the orbit26
The Orbit
  • The orbit of the skull is like a megaphone with the large opening anterior
  • The roof of the orbit is the frontal bone
  • The floor of the orbit is the maxilla, palatine
  • The lateral wall of the orbit is the zygomatic bone
  • The posterior orbit is the sphenoid
  • The medial wall has three bones (lateral to medial): lacrimal, ethmoid, maxilla
  • Cranial bones containing sinuses:
    • Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillae
  • Sinuses
    • lined by mucous membranes
    • lighten the skull
    • serve as resonating chambers for speech
  • Sinusitis
    • occurs when membranes become inflamed
    • may cause pain by the buildup of pressure
  • Hyoid bone
    • U-shaped bone
    • unique because it articulates with no other bone of the body.
    • Supports the tongue
    • Provides attachment for the tongue muscles, neck and pharynx muscles
      • Named: _______hyoid i.e. omohyoid, sternohyoid
    • Fractured in choking
    • Greater horns point posterior
the famous hyoid bone poem
The Famous Hyoid Bone Poem
  • An Ode to you oh ‘U’ shape,
  • You do not articulate.
  • But you allow us to phonate-
  • And to use our tongue and neck great.
the skull in infancy childhood
The Skull in Infancy & Childhood
  • Baby skulls have “soft” spots called: Fontanels, which are dense connective tissue
  • The anterior fontanel is commonly called the “soft spot”
  • Major functions:
    • I. Enables the fetal skull to get through the birth canal.
    • II. Permits rapid growth of the brain during infancy.
  • Later in life, fontanels become bone
  • Fuse by 2 years of age
skull disorders
Skull Disorders
  • TMJ syndrome is a dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint
    • Causes:
      • Muscle imbalance due to improperly aligned teeth, grinding, trauma, stress
      • Joint degeneration due to arthritis
    • Treatment:
      • Balance muscles
  • Deviated nasal septum (DNS) is a lateral deflection of the septum from the midline
general features of the vertebral column
General Features of the Vertebral Column
  • Chiropractic (Chiro = hand, practic = done by) - a holistic, drugless science of spinal care and it’s relationship to the nervous system and health.
  • 26 moveable vertebrae
  • Five vertebral groups:
    • 7 cervical in the neck
    • 12 thoracic in the chest
    • 5 lumbar in lower back
    • 1 sacrum (5 fused bones)
    • 1 coccyx (4 fused bones)
  • 33 total vertebrae
remembering the spine
Remembering the Spine
  • Calendar version:
  • 7 Days in the week
    • Cervicals
  • 12 Months of the year
    • Thoracics
  • 5 days of the work week
    • Lumbar
  • 2 days in a weekend
    • Sacrum/ coccyx
  • Food version:
newborn spinal curvature
Newborn Spinal Curvature
  • Spine exhibits one continuous C-shaped curve
  • Known as primary curvatures which are the:
  • thoracic and
  • sacral curves
adult spinal curvatures
Adult Spinal Curvatures
  • S-shaped vertebral column with 4 curvatures
  • Secondary curvatures develop after birth
    • lifting head as it begins to crawl develops cervical curvature
    • walking upright develops lumbar curvature
abnormal spinal curvatures
Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

Scoliosis Kyphosis Lordosis

structure of typical vertebra
Structure of Typical Vertebra
  • Processes
    • spinous
    • transverse
    • articular (superior & inferior)

Neural arch

    • 2 lamina
    • 2 pedicles
  • Body
  • Disc
intervertebral foramen discs
Intervertebral Foramen & Discs
  • Intervertebral foramen
    • formed from vertebral notches of adjacent vertebrae
    • passageway for spinal nerves
  • Intervertebral discs
    • bind vertebrae together
    • absorb shock
    • inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by annulus fibrosus
    • herniated disc puts pressure on spinal nerve or spinal cord
typical cervical vertebrae
Typical Cervical Vertebrae
  • Small body
  • Transverse process short with transverse foramen for vertebral arteries
  • C7 vertebra prominens
typical thoracic vertebrae
Typical Thoracic Vertebrae
  • Medium body
  • Spinous processes pointed and angled downward (elk)
  • Rib attachment
typical lumbar vertebrae
Typical Lumbar Vertebrae
  • Largest body
  • Blunt, squarish spinous process (moose)
sacrum anterior view
Sacrum (Anterior View)
  • 5 separate sacral vertebrae fuse by age 26
  • Anterior surface
    • smooth & concave
    • sacral foramina were intervertebral foramen
      • nerves & blood vessels
    • 4 transverse lines indicate line of fusion of vertebrae
sacrum posterior view
Sacrum (Posterior View)
  • Posterior sacral foramina
  • Auricular surface is part of sacroiliac joint
  • Sacral canal ends as sacral hiatus
  • Single, small, triangular bone
    • 4 small vertebrae fused by age of 30
    • Co1 to Co4
  • Fractured by falls
  • Or for female adults it can fracture during childbirth as the kid comes into the world
the unique atypical atlas and axis
The Unique (atypical) Atlas and Axis
  • Atlas (C1) supports the skull
  • NO BODY!
  • Axis (C2)
    • dens or odontoid process is held in place inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas by ligaments
    • “The body of the atlas is the dens of the axis.”
    • allows rotation of head -- “no”
  • Say “no” to Ax.
rib structure
Rib Structure
  • Articulation
    • head with body of vertebrae
    • tubercle with transverse process



true and false ribs
True and False Ribs
  • True ribs (1 to 7) attach to sternum with hyaline cartilage
  • False ribs are ribs 8-10
  • Floating ribs are 11-12 and are not attached to sternum
  • 12 pairs of ribs in both sexes
pectoral girdle
Pectoral Girdle
  • Attaches upper extremity to the body
  • Scapula and clavicle
  • Each scapula articulateswith the bodyonlyanteriorly at the sternoclavicular joint
  • Clavicle attaches medially to the sternum and laterally to the scapula
    • sternoclavicular joint (medial)
    • acromioclavicular joint (lateral)
clavicle clavicle is the most frequently broken bone in the body
ClavicleClavicleis the most frequently broken bone in the body
  • S-shaped bone
  • Sternal end is rounded -- acromial end is flattened
  • Why “S’ shaped? 2 reasons.
  • Overlies ribs 2 to 7
  • Spine of scapula laterally becomes the acromion process
  • Coracoid process anteriorly for muscle attachment
  • Subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous fossa
  • Glenoid fossa is shallow socket for head of humerus
upper limb
Upper Limb
  • 30 bones per limb
  • Brachium contains the humerus
  • Antebrachium contains the rest
  • Radius is on thumb side
  • Carpus or wrist contains 8 small bones
  • Hand contains 19 bones
    • 5 metacarpals in the palm
    • 14 phalanges in the fingers
  • Head forms shoulder joint above anatomical neck
  • Muscles attach to greater & lesser tubercles and deltoid tuberosity
  • Intertubercular groove holds biceps tendon
  • Rounded capitulum articulates with radius
  • Spool like trochlea articulates with ulna
  • Olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna in straightened arm
  • Forearm muscles attach to medial & lateral epicondyles
ulna and radius
Ulna and Radius
  • Radius
    • head is disc that rotates freely during pronation & supination
      • articulates with the capitulum in full flexion
      • articulates with ulna at radial notch always
    • radial tuberosity for biceps muscle
  • Ulna
    • olecranon and trochlear notch form proximal end
    • radial notch holds head of ulna
  • Interosseous membrane
    • ligament attaches radius to ulna along interosseous margin of each bone
carpal bones
Carpal Bones
  • Naming the Carpal bones Rules:
  • 8 total bones
  • 2 rows of 4 bones each name the proximal row first, distal row second
  • Name them in each row from lateral to medial
  • Use a mnemonic (ni-monic)
    • proximal row is scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum & pisiform
    • distal row is trapezium, trapezoid, capitate & hamate
  • The scaphoid and lunate are the only bones that articulate at the wrist by the _____
metacarpals and phalanges
Metacarpals and Phalanges
  • Phalanges are bones of the fingers
    • thumb or pollex has proximal & distal phalanx
    • fingers have proximal, middle & distal phalanx
  • Metacarpals are bones of the palm
mip pip dip
  • MIP- Metacarpal InterPhalangeal joint
  • PIP- Proximal InterPhalangeal joint
  • DIP- Distal InterPhalangeal joint
the meaning of finger nodes
  • Pathognomonic (path-ug-no-mon-ik) = a sign or symptom on which a diagnosis can be made
  • PIP- Proximal InterPhalangeal node
    • Pathognomonic of Degenerative joint disease
  • DIP- Distal InterPhalangeal node
    • This node represents calcific spurs of the articular cartilage
    • Pathognomonic of Osteoarthritis
  • Composed of 4 bones: right & left hip,sacrum and coccyx
  • Supports trunk on the legs& protects viscera
  • Each hip is joined tothe vertebral column at thesacroiliac joint
  • Anteriorly, pubic bones are joined by pad of fibrocartilage to form pubic symphysis
  • False and true pelvis are separated at pelvic brim
  • Infant’s head passes through pelvis
  • Provides a strong and stable support on which the weight of the body is transferred
  • The sacrum is the stable “capstone” of the spine
hip bone
Hip Bone
  • Acetabulum is hip joint socket
  • Ilium is superior portion
    • iliac crest
    • greater sciatic notch contains _____nerve
  • Pubis is anterior portion
  • Ischium is posterolateral portion
    • ischial tuberosity bears body weight if sit
    • ischial spine
  • Illium, pubis and Ischium form a “Y” in the acetabulum
  • Longest and heaviest bone in the body
    • head ligament is fovea capitis
  • Greater & lesser trochanters for muscle attachment
  • Posterior ridge called linea aspera
  • Medial & lateral condyles are found distally
  • Smooth patellar surface on anterior femur
  • The knee is composed of three bones:
    • Femur, Tibia, Patella
  • Patella lies anterior to the knee joint
    • The patella increases the leverage of the tendon of the rectus femoris muscle
patella and tibia
Patella and Tibia
  • Patella is triangular sesamoid bone
    • sesamoid - found in tendons or ligaments, sesame seed shaped
      • patella, pisiform
  • Tibia is thick, strong weight-bearing bone on medial side of leg
    • broad superior head with 2 flat articular surfaces
      • medial & lateral condyles
    • roughened anterior surface can be palpated below the patella(tibial tuberosity)
    • distal expansion is medial malleolus
  • Slender lateral strut that helps stabilize the ankle
  • Does not bear any of the body’s weight
    • The fibula lies about his weight
  • Head is proximal end
  • Lateral malleolus is distal expansion
  • Joined to tibia by interosseous membrane
  • The foot consists of 26 bones; 7 tarsals,

5 metatarsals and 14 phalanges.

    • Seven tarsal bones constitute the ankle and share the weight associated with walking.
    • Five metatarsal bones are contained in the foot
    • 14 phalanges in the toes (same as for the fingers and thumb) in each foot
the ankle and foot
The Ankle and Foot
  • The 3 Cuneiforms are named: medial, intermediate, lateral
  • Navicular looks like a navy hat
  • The cuboid looks like a big cube
  • Talus is tallest of the tarsal bone
    • forms ankle joint with tibia & fibula
    • sits upon calcaneus & articulates with navicular
  • Calcaneus forms heel (achilles tendon attaches to it)
the foot
The Foot
  • Metatarsal I is proximal to the great toe (hallux)
  • Phalanges
    • 2 in great toe
    • 3 in all other toes
      • proximal, middle & distal
the golden arches
The Golden Arches
  • Plantar surface of foot does not normally rest flat on the ground
  • 3 springy arches
    • medial longitudinal arch extends from heel to the medial toes
    • lateral longitudinal arch extends from heel to lateral toes
    • transverse arch extends across the middle of the foot
  • Major ligament is the plantar ligament
  • Function of the arches:
    • Support the weight of the body
    • Provides leverage while walking
foot pathology
  • Flatfoot (pes planis)= the flattening of the medial longitudinal arches
  • Plantar fascitis = Inflamed plantar ligament
  • Heel spur = bony spur on the anterior calcaneus
  • Bunion = deformity of the distal great toe laterally
    • Most foot pathology is caused by bad shoes