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Chapter 7 Skeletal System. Bone Classification. Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid (Round) Bones. Skeletal System. Functions Support Protection internal organs Movement facilitation Bones act as the levers Articulations as the fulcrums

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chapter 7 skeletal system
Chapter 7Skeletal System

Bone Classification

  • Long Bones
  • Short Bones
  • Flat Bones
  • Irregular Bones
  • Sesamoid (Round)
  • Bones
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Functions
    • Support
    • Protection
      • internal organs
    • Movement facilitation
      • Bones act as the levers
      • Articulations as the fulcrums
      • Muscles provide the force
skeletal system1
Skeletal System
  • Functions
    • Mineral Storage
      • calcium and phosphorous
    • Storage of Blood Cell Producing Cells
      • red bone marrow
    • Storage of Energy
      • lipids stored in yellow bone marrow are important source of chemical energy
bone function
Bone Function
  • Support, Movement & Protection
    • gives shape to head, etc.
    • supports body’s weight
    • protects lungs, etc.
    • bones and muscles interact
    • when limbs or body parts move
  • Inorganic Salt Storage
    • calcium
    • phosphate
    • magnesium
    • sodium
    • potassium
  • Blood Cell Formation
    • hematopoiesis
    • red marrow
cells and histology of bone
Cartilage, Osseous and Dense CT

Osseous Tissue (4 cell types)


Found throughout the bone

Have mitotic potential

May differentiate into osteoblast

Cells and Histology of Bone
cells and histology of bone1
Cells and Histology of Bone
  • Osseous Tissue (4 cell types)
    • Osteoblast
      • No mitotic potential
      • Found on the surface of the bone
      • Secrete mineral salts and organic components for bone formation
cells and histology of bone2
Cells and Histology of Bone
  • Osseous Tissue (4 cell types)
    • Osteocytes
      • No mitotic potential
      • Found within the bone
      • Maintain daily cellular activities of bone tissue
    • Osteoclast
      • Found on the surface of bone
      • Function in the re-absorption of bone
parts of a long bone
Parts of a Long Bone
  • Epiphysis
    • distal end
    • proximal end
  • Articular Cartilage
    • Covers each epiphysis
    • Hyaline cartilage
  • Diaphysis
    • Shaft
  • Metaphysis
    • Area between diaphysis and epiphysis in mature bone
parts of a long bone1

Contains nerves, blood vessels, osteo cells

Attachment point for ligaments and tendons

Medullary cavity

contains yellow marrow


lines the medullary cavity

Parts of a Long Bone
parts of a long bone2

Irregular lattice work of bone-trabeculae

Spaces filled with red marrow

produces RBCs

Parts of a Long Bone
parts of a long bone3
Compact Bone

Tightly packed tissue


Concentric Lamellae

Concentric circles of tightly packed tissue

Volkmann’s Canals

Penetrate compact bone

Allow blood vessels and nerves into medullary cavity and other Haversian Canals

Parts of a Long Bone
parts of a long bone4
Compact Bone

Haversian Canals

Run longitudinally through the compact bone

Concentric lamellae surround the canals


Open spaces between the concentric lamellae that contain osteocytes

Look like “little lakes”

Parts of a Long Bone
parts of a long bone5
Compact Bone


Tiny canals that radiate away from the lacunae

Osteon (Haversian System)

Central canal, surrounding lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes and canaliculi

Parts of a Long Bone
bone development
Bone Development
  • Intramembranous Ossification
    • bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues
    • broad, flat bones
      • skull bones (except mandible)
    • intramembranous bones
  • Endochondral Ossification
    • bones begin as hyaline cartilage
      • form models for future bones
    • most bones of the skeleton
    • endochondral bones
endochondral ossification
Endochondral Ossification
  • hyaline cartilage model
  • primary ossification center
  • secondary ossification centers
  • epiphyseal plate
  • osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts
endochondral ossification1
Hyaline cartilage model

“bone” created by chondroblast

Actual ossification of this “bone” starts 6-7 weeks after conception

Endochondral Ossification
endochondral ossification2
Endochondral Ossification
  • Interstitial and Oppositional Growth
    • Chondrocytes burst and trigger calcification
    • Capillaries and bone cells invade dying cartilage
    • Bone starts to calcify
endochondral ossification3
Primary Ossification Center

Blood vessels in mid-region produce ossification center

Osteoblast form spongy bone in the area of calcified cartilage, this causes the center to enlarge

Spongy bone is destroyed by osteoclast-forms medullary cavity

Endochondral Ossification
endochondral ossification4
Secondary Ossification Centers

When blood vessels enter the epiphysis

Spongy bone created here will stay

Epiphyseal plate

Layer of hyaline cartilage between the 2 areas of growth

Stays until you reach maturity

Endochondral Ossification
growth at the epiphyseal plate
Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate
  • First layer of cells
    • closest to the end of epiphysis
    • resting cells
    • anchors epiphyseal plate to epiphysis
  • Second layer of cells
    • many rows of young cells
    • undergoing mitosis
growth at the epiphyseal plate1
Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate
  • Third layer of cells
    • older cells
    • left behind when new cells appear
    • cells enlarging and becoming calcified
  • Fourth layer of cells
    • thin
    • dead cells
    • calcified extracellular matrix
homeostasis of bone tissue
Homeostasis of Bone Tissue
  • Bone Re-absorption – action of osteoclasts and parathyroid hormone
  • Bone Deposition – action of osteoblasts and calcitonin
factors affecting bone development growth and repair
Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair
  • Deficiency of Vitamin A – retards bone development
  • Deficiency of Vitamin C – results in fragile bones
  • Deficiency of Vitamin D – rickets, osteomalacia
  • Insufficient Growth Hormone – dwarfism
  • Excessive Growth Hormone – gigantism, acromegaly
  • Insufficient Thyroid Hormone – delays bone growth
  • Sex Hormones – promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates
  • Physical Stress – stimulates bone growth
superficial bone anatomy
Superficial Bone Anatomy
  • Process
    • bony prominence “bump”
    • Condyle
      • rounded or knuckle like process
    • Tubercle
      • small process
    • Tuberosity
      • large process (tibial tuberosity)
    • Trochanter
      • huge process (located on the proximal end of the femur)
superficial bone anatomy1
Superficial Bone Anatomy
  • Crest
    • narrow ridge of bone
  • Spine
    • sharp slender process (holes and/or depressions)
  • Fissure
    • narrow slit through which blood vessels or nerves pass
  • Foramen
    • opening through which blood vessels and nerves pass
superficial bone anatomy2
Superficial Bone Anatomy
  • Meatus
    • tubelike passageway running within a bone
  • Sulcus or groove
    • furrow that accommodates a soft structure such as blood vessels, nerves or tendons
  • Fossa
    • depression in or on the surface of a bone
life span changes
Life-Span Changes
  • decrease in height at about age 30
  • calcium levels fall
  • bones become brittle
  • osteoclasts outnumber osteoblasts
  • spongy bone weakens before compact bone
  • bone loss rapid in menopausal women
  • hip fractures common
  • vertebral compression fractures common
clinical application fractures

one fragment is firmly driven into the other


anatomical alignment is NOT preserved


anatomical alignment is preserved


partial fracture resulting in bones inability to withstand forces

About 25% involve distal end of the fibula

Clinical Application: Fractures
clinical application
Clinical Application

Types of Fractures

  • green stick
  • fissured
  • comminuted
  • transverse
  • oblique
  • spiral
clinical application fractures1
Clinical Application: Fractures
  • Pathologic
    • caused by weakening of the bone due to a disease
  • Pott’s
    • fracture of the distal end of the fibula with serious injury to the distal tibial articulation
    • Severe eversion sprain may lead to this
  • Colle’s
    • fracture at the distal end of the radius in which the distal end is displaced posteriorly
    • Occurs frequently when you try to stop yourself from falling
clinical application fracture repair
Fracture breaks blood vessels found in the Haversian system

Blood clot forms at the site of the break within 6 to 8 hours (fracture hematoma)

Fracture hematoma

serves as the focus for cellular invasion

Clinical Application: Fracture Repair
clinical application fracture repair1
Callus forms

New bone tissue developed around the fracture

Site of osteoblast activity

Clinical Application: Fracture Repair
clinical application fracture repair2

Dead bone is absorbed by osteoclast

Compact bone replaces spongy bone in the fractured area

Clinical Application: Fracture Repair
clinical application disorders

Age related disease characterized by decreased bone mass an increased chance of fractures

Decreased levels of estrogen (sex hormones that stimulate osteoblast)

Clinical Application: Disorders
clinical application disorders1
Clinical Application: Disorders
  • Osteoporosis
    • White women more than men and people of color
    • Other factors linked to osteoporosis
      • Body build
        • short people have less bone mass
      • Weight
        • thin people have less adipose, which stores estrogen
      • Smokers-
        • low estrogen levels
      • Calcium deficiency and mal-absorption
      • Vitamin D deficiency
      • Certain drugs-
        • alcohol, cortisone, etc.
      • Premature menopause
clinical application disorders2
Clinical Application: Disorders
  • Osteoporosis Prevention
    • Exercise
      • muscle action stimulates blood flow to bone tissue
    • Estrogen pills-
      • for post menopause women
    • Calcium supplements/ vitamins
    • Prescription anabolic steroids-
      • increase hormone levels
    • Sodium Fluoride stimulates oteoblast
clinical application disorders3
Clinical Application: Disorders
  • Osteogenic Sarcoma
    • Malignant bone tumor that affects osteoblast
    • People between ages of 10-25
    • Left untreated it will metasticize and lead to death
    • Treatment includes chemotherapy following amputation of affected area
clinical application disorders4
Clinical Application: Disorders
  • Rickets
    • Vitamin D deficiency in children
    • Body can’t transport Ca+2 and P-3 from GI tract to blood
    • Osteoblasts in diaphysis don’t calcify causing bones to stay soft
    • Weight of body causes the legs to bow
    • Cure and prevention
      • Dietary- add vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus in large amounts
      • Exposing the skin to ultraviolet rays of light
skeletal organization
Skeletal Organization
  • Axial Skeleton
    • head
    • neck
    • trunk
  • Appendicular Skeleton
    • upper limbs
    • lower limbs
    • pectoral girdle
    • pelvic girdle
skeletal organization2
Skeletal Organization
  • Hyoid Bone
    • Supports tongue
    • Attachment point for muscles that move tongue
  • Frontal(1)
    • Forehead
    • Roof of nasal cavity
    • Roofs of optical orbits
    • Frontal sinuses
    • Supraorbital foramen
      • Blood vessels and nerve
    • Coronal suture
    • Develops in two parts
      • Completely fused by age 5 or 6
  • Parietal(2)
    • Side walls of cranium
    • Roof of cranium
    • sagittal suture
      • Fuses two parietal bones together
    • Coronal suture
      • Fuses parietal bones to frontal bone
  • Occipital (1)
    • back of skull
    • base of cranium
    • foramen magnum
      • Inferior part of brain stem connects with spinal cord
    • occipital condyles
      • Either side of foramen magnum
    • lambdoid suture
      • Fuses parietal bones with occipital bone
  • Temporal (2)
    • side walls of cranium
    • floor of cranium
    • floors and sides of orbits
    • squamous suture
      • Fuses parietal with temporal
    • external acoustic meatus
      • Leads to inner ear
    • mandibular fossa
      • Where mandible meets temporal bone
    • mastoid process
      • Neck muscle attachment
    • styloid process
      • Tongue and pharynx attachment
    • zygomatic process
  • Sphenoid (1)
    • base of cranium
    • sides of skull
    • floors and sides of orbits
    • sella turcica
      • Indentation along midline within cranial cavity
      • Contains pituitary gland
    • sphenoidal sinuses
  • Ethmoid(1)
    • roof and walls of nasal cavity
    • floor of cranium
    • wall of orbits
    • cribriform plates
      • Join two parts of ethmoid on either side of nasal cavity
    • perpendicular plate
      • Forms most of nasal septum
    • superior and middle nasal conchae
      • Support mucous membranes of nasal cavity
    • ethmoidal sinuses
    • crista galli
      • Projects upward into cranial cavity
      • Attaches brain membranes
facial skeleton
Facial Skeleton
  • Maxillary (2)
    • upper jaw
    • anterior roof of mouth
    • floors of orbits
    • sides of nasal cavity
    • floors of nasal cavity
    • alveolar processes
    • maxillary sinuses
    • palatine process
facial skeleton2
Facial Skeleton
  • Palatine (2)
    • L shaped bones located behind the maxillae
    • posterior section of hard palate
    • floor of nasal cavity
    • lateral walls of nasal cavity
facial skeleton3
Facial Skeleton
  • Zygomatic (2)
    • prominences of cheeks
    • lateral walls of orbits
    • floors of orbits
    • temporal process
      • Extends posteriorly to join zygomatic process of temporal bone
facial skeleton4
Facial Skeleton
  • Lacrimal (2)
    • medial walls of orbits
    • groove from orbit to nasal cavity
  • Nasal (2)
    • bridge of nose
facial skeleton5
Facial Skeleton
  • Vomer(1)
    • inferior portion of nasal septum
facial skeleton6
Facial Skeleton
  • Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)
    • extend from lateral walls of nasal cavity
facial skeleton7
Facial Skeleton
  • Mandible (1)
    • Lower jaw
    • Body
      • Horseshoe shaped portion
    • Ramus
      • Flat, upward projections
    • Mandibular condyle
      • Fits into mandibular fossa
    • Coronoid process
      • Chewing muscle attachment
    • alveolar process
    • mandibular foramen
    • mental foramen
infantile skull
Infantile Skull

Fontanels – fibrous membranes

vertebral column
Vertebral Column
  • cervical vertebrae (7)
  • thoracic vertebrae (12)
  • lumbar vertebrae (5)
  • sacrum
  • coccyx
vertebral column1
Vertebral Column
  • cervical curvature
    • Smallest vertebrae
    • Most dense bone tissue
  • thoracic curvature
  • lumbar curvature
  • sacral curvature
  • rib facets
  • vertebra prominens
    • Long spinous process on 7th vertebra
  • intervertebral discs
  • intervertebral foramina
cervical vertebrae
Cervical Vertebrae
  • Atlas – 1st; supports head
  • Axis – 2nd; dens pivots to turn head
  • transverse foramina
    • Blood vessels leading to the brain pass through
  • bifid spinous processes
    • Muscle attachment
  • vertebral prominens
    • useful landmark
thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae
  • long spinous processes
  • rib facets
lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar Vertebrae
  • large bodies
    • Support weight
  • thick, short spinous processes
    • Nearly horizontal
  • five fused vertebrae
    • Fuse between age 15 and 30
  • median sacral crest
    • Fused spinous processes
  • posterior sacral foramina
  • posterior wall of pelvic cavity
  • sacral promontory
    • Body of the 1st sacral vertebra
  • tailbone
  • four fused vertebrae
    • Fuse by age 25
thoracic cage
Thoracic Cage
  • Ribs
  • Sternum
  • Thoracic vertebrae
  • Costal cartilages
  • Supports shoulder (pectoral) girdle and upper limbs
  • Protects viscera
  • Role in breathing
  • True ribs (7)
    • Attach to sternum by costal cartilage
  • False ribs (5)
    • Costal cartilage does not reach sternum
    • Top 3 join cartilage of 7th True rib
    • Bottom 2 don’t attach at all
  • floating (2)
rib structure
Rib Structure
  • Shaft
  • Head
    • posterior end
    • articulates with vertebrae
  • Tubercle
    • articulates with vertebrae
  • Costal cartilage
    • hyaline cartilage
  • Manubrium
  • Body
  • Xiphoid process
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Comprised of 2 parts
    • Pectoral girdle and upper extremity
      • Shoulders and arms
    • Pelvic girdle and lower extremity
      • Hips and legs
pectoral girdle
Pectoral Girdle
  • attach bones of the upper extremities to the axial skeleton
  • Shoulder Girdle
    • clavicles - anterior
    • scapulae - posterior
  • supports upper limbs
  • Long slender bone with double curvature
  • Sternal end
    • Rounded end
    • articulates with manubrium
  • Acromial end
    • Broad flat end
    • articulates with scapula (acromion process)
  • Triangular flat bone
  • Posterior part of the thorax
  • Between the 2nd and the 7th rib
  • Medial border
    • 5 centimeters from the vertebral column
  • spine
    • Runs diagonally across body
    • supraspinous fossa
    • infraspinous fossa
  • acromion process
      • part of the spine that expands past the body
  • coracoid process
      • located at the lateral end of the superior ridge
  • glenoid cavity
      • fossa inferior to the acromian process
      • Articulates with the head of the humerus to make a ball and socket joint
upper limb
Upper Limb
  • Consists of 60 bones
  • Each side contains 30 bones
    • 1 humerus
    • 1 radius
    • 1 ulna
    • 8 carpals
    • 5 metacarpals
    • 14 phalanges
upper limb1
Upper Limb
  • Humerus
    • Articulates proximally with the scapula and distally with both the radius and the ulna
    • Largest bone in the upper extremity
  • Head
    • rounded proximal end, articulates with glenoid cavity
  • Anatomical neck
    • Slight groove below head
    • Epiphyseal plate
  • Greater tubercle
    • large lateral process below the anatomical neck
  • lesser tubercle
    • anterior side
  • Intertubercular groove
  • Surgical neck
    • Constricted portion inferior to tubercles
    • Fractures likely here
  • Deltoid tuberosity
    • Slight bump on the anterior surface
    • Insertion point for deltoid muscle

rounded knob

articulates with head of radius


Pulley-like surface that articulates with ulna

Coronoid fossa

Receives part of the ulna when elbow is flexed

On anterior, distal surface

Olecranon fossa

posterior side

receives olecranon process of ulna when elbow is extended

Medial and Lateral Epicondyles

Found on either side of distal end of humerus

Serve as attachments of most forearm muscles

Ulnar nerve

Lies over the posterior surface of the medial epicondyle

Can be rolled between the finger and the medial epicondyle

  • medial forearm bone
  • trochlear notch
    • Curved area between olecranon and coronoid process
    • Articulates with trochlea of humerus
    • Allows for flexion and extension of elbow
Olecranon process

posterior projection

proximal end

Coronoid process

anterior projection- lateral

Styloid process

posterior side of the head of the ulna


distal end of the ulna

  • lateral forearm bone
  • Head
    • Disc like structure that articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna
  • Radial tuberosity
    • Proximal end inferior to head
    • Anterior surface
  • Styloid process
    • Distal end
    • Articulates with scaphoid bone
wrist and hand
Wrist and Hand
  • Carpals (16)
    • trapezium
    • trapezoid
    • capitate
    • scaphoid
    • pisiform
    • triquetrum
    • hamate
    • lunate
  • Metacarpals (10)
  • Phalanges (28)
    • proximal phalanx
    • middle phalanx
    • distal phalanx
pelvic girdle
Pelvic Girdle
  • Provide a strong support for the lower extremities
  • Coxae (2)
    • Each is 3 bones fused together
    • Os coxa (1)
  • Sacrum
  • supports trunk of body
  • protects viscera
  • hip bones
    • Acetabulum
      • lateral fossa of the os coxa where 3 pelvic bones merge
  • Ilium
    • Superior to other 2 portions
    • iliac crest
      • superior border
      • serves as insertion point for abdominal wall muscles

Iliac fossa

internal surface seen from the medial side

gives the pelvis a bowl shape appearance

Greater sciatic notch

Inferior to iliac crest

Posterior to acetabulum

Allows for major nerves and blood vessels to travel from sacrum to legs


inferior, posterior portion of the coxal bone

ischial spines

Posterior, superior to ischial tuberosity

lesser sciatic notch

Inferior to ischial spine

ischial tuberosity

tuberosity that we sit on


orbturator foramen

between ischium, pubic bone and acetabulum

symphysis pubis

Joins with other pubic bone at symphysis pubis

Hormone, relaxin, is released during child birth that allows greater flexibility of the fibrocartilage

greater and lesser pelvis
Greater and Lesser Pelvis
  • Greater Pelvis
    • lumbar vertebrae posteriorly
    • iliac bones laterally
    • abdominal wall anteriorly
  • Lesser Pelvis
    • sacrum and coccyx posteriorly
    • lower ilium, ischium, and pubis bones laterally and anteriorly
male and female pelvis
Male and Female Pelvis
  • Female
    • iliac bones more flared
    • broader hips
    • pubic arch angle greater
    • more distance between ischial spines and ischial tuberosities
    • sacral curvature shorter and flatter
    • lighter bones
lower limb
Lower Limb
  • Femur (2)
  • Patella (2)
  • Tibia (2)
  • Fibula (2)
  • Tarsals (14)
  • Metatarsals (10)
  • Phalanges (14)
  • Longest & heaviest bone of body
  • Body of femur angles toward the midline
    • makes knees closer than hips
    • Degree is greater in females

rounded end

articulates with acetabulum


Distal to the head

Elderly people break this area often

Greater trochanter & Lesser trochanter

large processes below the neck

serve attachment points for some thigh and buttock muscles



Linea aspera

Posterior side of shaft

Serves as insertion point for adductor muscles of the leg

Medial & Lateral epicondyles

Distal end of femur

Articulates with proximal end of tibia

Intercondylar fossa

important area for the ligaments in the knee

Patellar surface

distal anterior surface between the condyles that forms a gliding joint with the patella

  • kneecap
    • Inferior end is called the Apex
  • anterior surface of knee
  • flat sesamoid bone located in a tendon
  • shin bone
  • Large, medial, weight bearing bone of the lower extremity
  • Lateral & Medial Condyles
    • Articulate with epicondyles of femur
    • Inferior surface of the lateral condyle articulates with the fibula
Tibial tuberosity

Anterior surface of the tibia

Surface serves as attachment point for the patellar ligaments and tendons

anterior crest

Extends downward from tibial tuberosity

Intercondylar Eminence

Upward projection between the condyles of the tibia

Cruciate ligaments attach here

Medial malleolus

Medial projection on the distal end of the tibia

Provides medial supports to the hinge joint of your ankle

  • Lateral to tibia
  • Non weight-bearing
  • Long, slender
  • Head
    • proximal end
    • more rounded
  • Lateral malleolus
    • Distal end
    • articulates with the tibia and talus
    • Lateral support to the ankle
    • Longer pointier end
ankle and foot
Ankle and Foot
  • Tarsals (14)
    • Calcaneus
      • Largest and strongest tarsal
      • Supports body weight
      • Serves as lever attachment for gastrocnemius
ankle and foot1

Uppermost tarsal

Only bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula

Initially bares all body weight, then transfers half to the calcaneus and half to the other tarsals

Ankle and Foot
ankle and foot2

just anterior to the talus


Lateral side of the foot

Articulates with calcaneus, the 4th and 5th metatarsal

lateral cuneiform

intermediate cuneiform

medial cuneiform

Each cuneiform that articulates with the corresponding metatarsal

Ankle and Foot
ankle and foot3
Metatarsals (10)

numbered from the medial to the lateral side

Phalanges (28)




Ankle and Foot