SSWG1 The students will explain the physical aspects of geography.
Physical Geography Is the study of how physical characteristics ( land, climate, bodies of water, animal life and etc). A place is an are of land that shares common features or id defined by common characteristics. For Example: The Appalachia region is the portion of the US in North Carolina South Carolina, Georgia Kentucky, West Virginia and Virginia that is part of the Appalachian Mountains. ) define by it mountainous surrounding and distinct mountain culture)
Life The way people live is often determined by climate and physical features of their environment. In the mountains of West Virginia, coal mining has long been a way of life for many people because of the abundant resources of coal in the area.
Human Geography Human characteristics include language, religion, political systems and economic systems, population and way of life. Population settlement patterns refer to the types of people who live in a place. The population of a region and its culture play a key role in defining a place geographically. Example: Southeastern US- regions geography id ideal of raising crops like tobacco, sugar, rice and cotton. Prior to 1865, South relied heavily on African slaves to work large agricultural plantations that maintained its economy. Today slavery is outlaw but a good number of African Americans still in the South and help define its culture and economy,.
Human Activities Define a place Agriculture is prominent in much of the Midwestern United States because the climate makes it ideal for farming. Northeast and parts of the northern Midwest are know for industries like automobile and steel manufacturing. Southern cities continue to grown in importance as center of international business and banking.
SSWG2 Cultural Aspects of Geography
Culture Is the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors that transmitted from generation to generation. Some aspects of culture are religion, language, art, music clothing and manners. Example- In many cultures, Senior citizens are revered and ancestors are even worshipped.
Nomadic Lifestyles People of Africa’s desert( Sahara Desert in Africa) and plains regions have traditionally led nomadic lifestyles meaning they often move from location to location in search of fresh water supplies and areas for their livestock to graze. Religions practiced in these desert region often depict Paradise as a place of abundant water supplies, because water is so scarce and valued among such people.
Impact of Culture People who live on island, near ocean coasts, or along major rivers, like the Nile in Africa or the Amazon in South America usually have culture which rely heavily on these bodies of water. Japan tend to rely on a diet that features large amounts of seafood.
Physical Impacts on Culture Physical features( water, climate) impact culture by determining what resources are and what kid of shelter and clothing will be available. Climate often determines how people dress, how much they migrate, what kinds of crops thy can grown and how much they must modify their lifestyle based on different seasons of the year.
Cultural Characteristics Define Place Customs and Traditions- ways of doing things passed down form one generation of a people groups or society to the next. Examples: wedding rituals, burial ceremonies, traditional celebration and holidays, methods of showing respect, the manner in which business is conducted, rites of passage from child hood to adulthood.
Sample Questions WG.1and 2 Lakes, mountains, oil reserves, deserts, and open plains are all • Aspects of culture • Physical characteristics of geography • Human characteristics of geography • Physical characteristics of culture The way a particular society conducts weddings, expects honorable people to carry on business, and who it views as the most important citizens are all examples of • Physical geography • Cultural religions • Customs and traditions • Population settlement patterns
SSWG3North Africa and Southwest Asia Together= Middle East Similarities in climate and culture. Complex area with a fascinating and violent history. Closeness to Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea- links three continents-important terms of commerce and world trade-fought wars in region trying to secure trade routes and protect themselves
North Africa Variety of physical features. Mountains-three main Deserts ( areas receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year) . Sahara- world’s largest desert Sahel-belt of dry grasslands south of he Sahara desert
Bodies of Water Persian Gulf- important for trade and military purposes Strait of Hormuz-narrow waterway connecting the Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea-export oil supplies from here-receive goods from other foreign nations Mediterranean Sea- largest body of water in the region- access to travel and trade Tigris and Euphrates- important rivers- home to some of the oldest civilizations ( beginning of civilization) in the world-important water travel and trade- they meet in Iraq- Nile River- longest rive in the world-flows north provides water and nutrients to grow crops
Sinai and Suez Sinai Peninsula- land bridge between North Africa and Southwest Asia-connects the two regions Suez Canal- man-made waterway connecting the Mediterranean and Red Seas-crucial waterway allowing ships to sail from one sea to the other without having to go all the way around Arica.- trade and travel
Climate Southwest Asia and North Africa-dry with deserts ( nomads) Oasis- fertile areas within desert regions that provide water and vegetation
The Impact of Religion Three Major Religions-monotheism- belief in one gad Judaism-looks to ancient prophet Abraham as its founder-oldest-teaches that the Jewish people are God’s chosen nations Christianity- founder is Jesus-Bible Islam- the youngest religion- Mohammed is the founder- Koran
Conflicts Over Culture Traditional societies- customs and tradition-laws- Some Westernized- not traditional –more like US Terrorism-violence against innocent people in the name of a cause
SSWG4Sub-Saharan Africa Portion of the continent below North Africa (highlands-north and west and lowlands-north and east) East African Mountains-farmers depend on mountains for water from snowfall- Mount Kilimanjaro-highest mountain Great Rift Valley- has huge lakes-Lake Victoria-largest lake and second larges freshwater lake in the world Nile River Congo River-major means of travel and trade for interior Zambezi River- waterfall- Victoria Falls
Climate Desert Climate- hot and little rain Semiarid-high temperatures a little more rain Tropical climate- rainy and dry season Savanna- flat grassland Equatorial-high temperatures and rain-rainforest.
People Population distribution- where people live- affected by physical features and climate Major cities along waterways and coastal regions Dry and Rainforests- less people Urbanization – growth and development of cities Modernization- process of a society leaving primitive methods behind to adopt more modern techniques More advanced technology, better job opportunities and the ability to live a more modern life- attract many people to cities.
The Rest of Asia South Asia-Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan Maldives, Sri Lanka Southeast Asia-Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam Eastern Asia-Japan, China, Korea
WWG5South Asia Northern Mountain Rim- include Hindu Kush and Himalayas ( tallest mountains on earth)-location of Mt. Everest Northern Plains – Indus and Ganges run through plains- agriculture Deccan Plateau- large portion- rich mineral deposits- home of elephants Sri Lanka and the Maldives- beautiful islands-vulnerable to natural disasters
Climate Three Main Seasons Cool-high elevations Rainy-tropical-monsoon season Hot-tropical –southern India
SSWG5Southeast Asia Physical Features Mainland- Malay and Indochinese peninsulas Mekong River-longest river Land-Locked- surrounded by land- Laos Archipelagos- group of island in Season ( Singapore, Borneo, Philippines and Indonesia)
Climate Two Seasons Rainy-mid to late summer-farming Dry
SSWG5Eastern Asia Physical Features China- largest country Most of China is covered by Himalayas Plateau of Tibet- highest plateau in the world-northwest part of China Taklimakan and Gobi desert-northwest part Major Rivers- Huang He-nickname yellow river-causes floods, Chang Jiang- longest ,Xi Jiang Japan- country of islands- four main island0 Mount Fuji- tallest mountain ( Ring of Fire- high volcanic activity) Korea- peninsula bordering northwest Chins- object of Japanese military invasion ( because west of Japan) North Korea- communist and South Korea- capitalist democracy
Climate China- some part have subtropical while northern and mountainous areas snowfall and freezing China’s major rivers help provide fertile land-farming Japan- covered in forest and mountains- monsoons play a major role in the climate Korea- hot, humid summers and winter that are cold and day
Population and Climate Climate and topography affect where people live in a given region and the type of culture that develops. The Himalayas, other mountain ranges , and often bodies of water act as natural barriers that have contributed over centuries to the development of diverse cultures in various areas. Few people live in mountain areas and desert areas Urban areas – developed along coast and rivers – provide trade and travel Most people who live in Southern and Eastern Asian countries- live in the countryside Quality of life in different nation varies greatly Japan- major capitalist and industrialized nation- wealthy nation China- cities packed and rural population struggle-is developing at a fast pace India-country- poor and cities industrialized South Korea- capitalist nation- prosperous economy North Korea- poverty and live under totalitarian socialist regime
Practice Questions The Himalayas are part of the • Deccan Plateau • Island of Southeast Asia • Larges Muslim nation in the world • Northern Mountain Rim China, Japan and Korea are • The three major countries of Eastern Asia • The three major countries of South Asia • Island nations in Eastern Asia • Nations outside the “Ring of Fire” Urbanization and modernization means that large populations tend to live in a. cities b. rural areas c. mountainous regions d. deserts
SSWG6 Europe-second largest continent Physical Features- surrounded by several major bodies of water ( Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea) Peninsula -land surrounded on three sides by water)-good many of them- Iberian ,Scandinavian Ural Mountains-natural barrier dividing Europe Most of Europe is mountainous ( Alps and Pyrenees) –serve as barriers for different cultures The Great European Plain- rich farmland Major Rivers- Rhine, Danube, Volga
Climate Siberian Tundra- region has wide-open spaced covered with ice and snow by the year-round freezing temperatures Alps and Pyrenees- act as natural barrier between regions of Europe Winter in high elevation very cold Coastal areas- milder climate
Population, Economic Development and World Influence Europe’s geography has greatly impacted it stability to develop and influence the rest of the world. Europe’s mountain ranges serve as a natural barrier, many nations developed on the same continent. Pyrenees separate the people of Spain and Portugal form France and Germanic people. Water serves as a barrier. The UK sits on island just off the coast of mainland Europe. Europe- birthplace of industrial revolution Today Western Europe( nations that remained free of communist rules after WWII) continues to prosper and be an important center of international business Eastern Europe( national that fell under the rule of the USSR and its communist government after WWII_ has suffered economically. Ethnically diverse- people from many different background and they all live close to one another in the cities Urban areas- large areas where people live and work
European Union Group of European nations that have joined ranks to encourage economic and political progress. Euro-common currency
Practice Questions Southern Europe is best described as • extremely cold • similar to Africa’s equatorial region • fall of fjords • mild and dry The Pyrenees, Alps and Urals are • Important rivers in Europe • Major mountain ranges in Europe • Key peninsulas in Europe • Native Iberian people groups
SSWG7 Latin America-Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean Physical Features-mountainous region occupy much of Latin America- Mexico- 2 major mountain ranges- Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental and in between is Mexico’s Central Plateau Central America- mountain ranges covered in rainforests South America- Andes- longest series of mountain ranges in the world Caribbean Islands- volcanoes- openings in the earth’s surface ( usually a mountain) through which lave, volcanic ash and gases escape Earthquakes- Latin American prone to earthquakes- tectonic plates shift Amazon Basin- ( Columbia, South America) largest lowland area on the continent Amazon River- longest river in the Western Hemisphere Amazon Rainforest-covers portions of nine countries and represent more that one half of the world's remaining rainforest. Major Rivers- Rio Grande ( separate Mexico and US) Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea Panama Canal- built across the isthmus ( thin stretch of land) of Panama by the US so ships could travel between Atlantic and Pacific ocean without having to travel around South America Deforestation- destruction of rainforests- this is a side effect of every-growing population and industrial and economic development – causes environment concerns
Climate Tropical Climate- Equator runs through northern and South America- large portion of region are hot and dry and rainy seasons Atacama Desert- one of the driest place on earth (along Chile’s coast) Hurricanes- due to warm waters of Caribbean Sea these storms form over the ocean with winds greater than 75 mph El Nino- phenomenon usually occurs around Christmas every few year- features warmer than usual ocean currents which form in the Pacific off the coast of northern South America-currents warm the normally cool air= tends to change normal weather patterns causing different part of the globe to be dryer or experience more rainfall than normal
People and Population Distribution Home to a diverse ethnic population. Many live today in urban areas Mexico City – one of the most populated cities in the world – offers great opportunities for jobs, education, business and culture Pollution in Mexico City Area- air trapped and lingers because of the mountains Most populated areas rest in the fertile areas of the plains or along the coasts or waterways Thick rainforest areas- less dense in population High rugged mountain terrain- less dense in population
SSWG8United States and Canada US and Canada- part of continent known as North America-third largest continent Canada- largest country in North America and second larges in the world Physical Features Rocky Mountains- stretch over 3,00 miles from the southwestern US to Alaska Appalachian Mountains- hot as high as Rockies but are much older and feature beautiful scenic areas Between Rockies and Appalachia- Great Plains- covers central portion of both countries Mississippi River System – larges in North America-includes two longest river in the US0 Mississippi and Missouri Mackenzie River- longest in Canada- Great Lakes ( between US and Canada) Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, Gulf of California, Hudson Bay, St. Lawrence River, Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea
Climate of Canada and the US North of Canada and Alaska- tundra- frozen land South of tundra- thick, evergreen forests Pacific Coat- wet, climate with chilly winter and comfortable summers Pacific Mountains-block moisture and have deserts in Nevada, Utah, Arizona Great Plains- hot summers and cold snow-filled winters Northeastern US- cold, snowy winters and mild summers Southeast- chilly winters with little snow and hot, humid summers Droughts- like Georgia now- period without rain
Population Distribution and Regional Growth Most citizens in US and Canada live in urban areas Many cities grew up along major rivers and along ocean coasts because of the access to travel and opportunities for trade and commerce such bodies of water provided. New York city- largest urban area in US-immigrants came here Canada- large cities along Great Lakes area Northeastern US- more populated than other areas of US Southern area of US- growing in population( Sun Belt)
Practice Questions The largest river system in North America is the • Missouri • Mississippi • Mackenzie • Appalachian Canada is • The largest country in terms of land area in the world • The largest country in terms of population in the world • The largest country in terms of land area in North America • The second largest country in terms of land area in North American
SSWG9Oceania Oceania- Australia, New Zealand, Antarctica-20,000 island stretching across the Pacific Ocean Australia- smallest continent on earth and country Antarctica- South Pole- uninhabitable – buried in ice -70% of the world’s fresh water
Physical Features Great Dividing Range- series of mountains and hilly regions Great Barrier Reef- lies along northeastern coast-home to multitude of underwater wildlife New Zealand-consists of two main islands- sandy beaches, rolling green hillsides, various plateaus and mountainous regions with peaks covered in snow Volcanoes
Climate Australia-coast- receive rainfall Mountains prevent much of the moisture from every reach the dry interior New Zealand- mild and rain Island- tropical climate – wet and day seasons – temperature hot year round Antarctica – frozen climate
Practice Questions What two parts of Oceania are sometimes considered separate form this region because they are continents? • Australia and New Zealand • The outback and Great Barrier Reef • Antarctica and Tasman • Antarctica and Australia