Unit 1 Geography Activity 1 What is geography about?
What kinds of topics are covered in geography? • List 10 different topics on your activity sheet. Each member of the group must contribute ideas. • Whomever is the oldest in your group will be spokesperson for your group this time. • Mr. Poen will list topics on the board.
Activity 1 Directions • Mr. P will assign small groups. • In your desk racks you will find a geog. resource. Everyone in your group may have a different resource. That’s great! • When directed, look through your source noticing what topics are studied in geography.
Define Geography • Still in your groups, develop a definition that the group can agree on. • Write it on your activity sheet. • Each person will turn in their activity sheet. • Congratulations for earning your first grade in Social Studies!
Notes:Unit 1 Geography • Definition • Geography is the study of the earth’s structure, surface, and place in space. 1. It studies the people, their environments, & their resources. • It includes landforms, bodies of water, climate,
internal forces, & place in space. • People who study Geography are called: geographers • They ask how the natural environment affects: the way we live and how we affect the environment.
How does geography help historians understand the past. Geography holds clues to past events & cultures. By showing how people and the land are related, geog. helps explain the past and the present.
II. Subject Areas • The study of The physical features of the planet including landforms, and bodies of water is Physical Geography
B. This is the study of how the environment and geog. affects the people: Cultural Geog.
This is the study of weather. Meteorology D. This is the study of climate (long term weather patterns) Climatology
This is the study of the Earth’s structure: Geology
This studies the earth’s place in space. It also includes othe celestial bodies such as moons, planets, nebula, comets, etc. Astronomy
This studies maps and map-making. Cartography • This is the study of the oceans and other large bodies of salt water: oceanography
Think QuestionsWhich subject area of geog does each fit within? • 1. Mining for coal • 2. Migration pattern of Arctic herdsmen • 3. Planning a vacation route • 4. Storm chasers • 5. Global warming trends • 6. Dropping population of some fish species in the oceans.
III. Five Themes of Geography • To help show the connection between geography and history, geographers have developed five themes. • These are: -Location -Place -Interaction between people & their environment -Movement -Region
B. Theme: Location • Answers /describes: Where did an event happen? Where is this place?
2. Two types: Absolute (exact) and Relative 3. Absolute (exact) Location: Tells exactly where something is located. 4. Way to show this: Uses latitude and longitude, which are terms used to describe the grid of numbered lines on a map or globe.
Relative location: tells the location in relation to something well known. 6. Ways to show this: Sometimes it is more useful to know the relative location of a place, or its location in relation to some other place. Is Washington D.C., on the east or west of the United States? Manteno is 30 miles south of Chicago.
Exact Location Tells exactly where something is located. Uses latitude and longitude Relative Location Tells where something is located in relation to another place. Review
C. Themes: Place & Region • Geographers generally describe a place in terms of both physical and human features.
2. The physical features of a place include climate, soil, plant life, animal life, and bodies of water.
For example: New England, has a ___ terrain, a ___ coast, and many deep harbors; because of this the region turned to ____ for a living.
3. People help shape the character of a place through their ideas and actions. • The human features of a place include: the kinds of houses people build as well as their means of transportation, ways of earning a living, languages, and religions.
Think of human features of the American frontier. Major ways of making a living? Building practices?
What is a region? It is a large geographical area with similar features and characteristics.
5. What are characteristics of a region? May be physical, such as its climate or landforms. • Example: The Great Plains is considered a region because it has fairly level land, very hot summers, very cold winters, and little rainfall. May be human and cultural. • Many of the Russian provinces have different languages than the one spoken in the capital.
In what physical region do we live? Central Plains
D. Theme: Movement • Involves the movement of three things: People Goods Ideas
Examples: It occurs because people and resources are scattered unevenly around the globe. To get what they need or want, people travel from place to place.
As people move, they meet other people and exchange… ideas, technology,& goods.
Theme: How the people and their environment interact. Three ways that humans interact with their environment: Humans adapt to their environment Humans modify their environment Humans depend on their environment
1. Examples: Adapt: learning how to farm in ancient times; -People no longer had to move from place to place in search of food. Cities developed. Modify: Finding ways to irrigate in dry places. -Change unproductive ground into farmland. Building bridges over rivers & roads through mountains
Depend: use rivers to transport goods and people use rivers and lakes for water sources for drinking, recreation, and household needs.
Due to advanced technology people may alter their environments dramatically by drilling and mining cutting down forest to build communities Eliminating pests that destroy crops.
IV. Maps and Globes • Advantages of maps over globes: -May show a variety of information-population, natural resources -Can zoom in and show great detail -Easier to store & carry
Advantages of globes over maps: Globes show “true” land shape, distances, & directions. Maps show distortion more than globes.
V. Kinds of Maps • What do each type show? • Political show man-made divisions such as countries and states • Physical shows what the landforms and water features are like.
Special purpose maps show a very specific theme such as population density, land use, transportation, trade, etc. Tea Production Land Use
III. The Earth • What percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by land? 29%; 1/4 • By water? 71%; 3/4 C. How many people live on earth? Over 6 1/2 Billion
The earth’s surface is divided into pieces called Tectonic Plates • What is the Ring of Fire? The Pacific Plate is one of the most active plates. It surrounds much of the Pacific Ocean. It is the most active earthquake/volcanic area.
Convergent Plates (Drawing) • What is made? Mountains, Volcanoes Earthquake zone
Divergent Plates (Drawing) • What is made? ocean trenches earthquake zone volcanoes • Transform Plates (Drawing) • What is made? earthquake zone Faults
E. Hemispheres • How much of a globe is one hemisphere? ½ • How many hemispheres are there? 4 Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western
3. What latitude line separates the Northern & Southern Hems? Equator 4. What longitude line separates the Eastern & Western? Prime Meridian
5. In which 2 hems. do we live? Northern & Western
Latitude and Longitude Skills • What are they for? to show location • Latitude lines are lines that go side to side but measure distance North/South from Equator.