slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Insects (Phylum Arthropoda; Sub-Phylum Uniramia) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Insects (Phylum Arthropoda; Sub-Phylum Uniramia)

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 35

Insects (Phylum Arthropoda; Sub-Phylum Uniramia) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 126 Views
  • Uploaded on

Insects (Phylum Arthropoda; Sub-Phylum Uniramia). Evolved over 300 million years ago Most successful group of animals (700,000 to 10 million species). Diversity (species and variety) Numbers (population size) Success due in part to enormous range of variation Structural (morphological)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Insects (Phylum Arthropoda; Sub-Phylum Uniramia)' - favian


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

Insects

(Phylum Arthropoda; Sub-Phylum Uniramia)

  • Evolved over 300 million years ago
  • Most successful group of animals (700,000 to 10 million species)
slide3

Diversity (species and variety)

  • Numbers (population size)
  • Success due in part to enormous range of variation
  • Structural (morphological)
  • Physiological (chemical)
  • Behavioral
slide4

Characteristics and Classification

  • Body - 3 parts
  • Head with 1 pair of antennae
  • Thorax with 3 pair of jointed legs and in many species 1-2 pair of wings
  • Abdomen with 11 segments (lacks wings and legs)
slide7

Success of the

  • Found virtually everywhere except the deep ocean
  • Extremely short life span -> rapid adaptation to new environments
  • Small size -> greater partitioning of habitats while minimizing competition
  • Flight -> greater dispersal, escape from predation, and movement into environments less accessible to other species
slide8

Insects and Human Society

  • Positive impact
  • Major pollinator of flowering plants (2/3 of all plants)
  • Food for fish, birds and mammals (important link in food web)
  • Help recycle materials (termites)
  • Useful biproducts (honey and silk)
slide9

Negative impact

  • Agricultural pests
  • Spread disease
slide10

Grasshoppers

  • 3 main body segments
  • Head (brain and sense organs)
  • Antennae
  • Compound and simple eyes
  • Complex moth parts
slide11

Thorax (legs and wings attached)

  • Prothorax and mesothorax (each have pair of walking legs)
  • Metathorax (jumping legs
slide12

Abdomen (organs of reproduction, digestion, respiration, and excretion)

  • 2 pair of wings
  • Leathery protective forewing (mesothorax)
  • Hind wing which is used for flight (metathorax)
slide13

Digestive System

  • Specialized mouthparts (liplike labium and labrum, jawlike mandibles and maxillae)
  • Salivary glands (produce saliva)
  • Digestive ceca (produces digestive enzymes)
slide14

Food -> mouth -> esophagus -> crop (storage) -> gizzard (chitinous plates shred it) -> stomach (mid gut) (mixes with gastric enzymes from ceca and absorbed) -> hind gut (colon and rectum) -> anus

slide15

Excretory System

  • Malpighian tubules in hindgut remove wastes from blood and deposit them in the rectum
slide16

Circulatory System

  • Open circulatory system
  • Blood -> aorta -> hearts (muscular region of aorta in posterior abdomen) -> anterior coelom (head) -> abdomen (absorbs and disperses nutrients) -> aorta via ostia
slide17

Respiratory System

  • Air -> spiracles (opening in thorax and abdomen) -> tracheae (network of air tubes) -> body tissues
  • Contraction of abdomen reverses process
slide18

Nervous System

  • Simple brain
  • Ventral nerve cord
  • 3 simple eyes (detect light)
  • 2 compound eyes (composed of hexagonal lenses capable of detecting movement but not sharp images)
slide19

Tympanum (detects sounds; located on first abdominal segment)

  • Antennae (detects touch and smell)
slide20

Reproductive System

  • Sperm deposited into female's seminal receptacle (stored until eggs are released)
  • Eggs fertilized internally
  • Ovipositor (pair of pointed organs at tip of abdomen) used to dig a hole in soil and deposit eggs
slide21

Development

  • Metamorphosis - developmental changes -> distinct changes in form and size
  • Incomplete Metamorphosis
  • 3 stages (egg, nymph, and adult)
  • Nymph- smaller immature form; similar to adult but underdeveloped reproductive organs and lack wings
  • Examples are grasshoppers and termites
slide22

Complete Metamorphosis

  • 4 stages (egg, larva, pupa, and adult)
  • Examples are butterflies, beetles and most other insects
slide23

Hormonal Control

  • Controlled by sequential expression of genes
  • Interaction of 3 hormones (brain, molting and juvenile)
slide24

Brain hormone stimulates release of molting hormone (effect depends on level of juvenile hormone)

  • Juvenile hormone level high -> molting hormone -> larva molts
  • Juvenile hormone level decreases -> molting hormone -> larva develop into pupa
  • Juvenile hormone absent -> molting hormone -> pupa develops into adult
slide25

Importance of Metamorphism

  • Different developmental stages -> different functions (specializations)
  • Eliminates energy conflicts between growth and reproduction
  • Eliminates competition between life stages
  • Multistage life cycle helps survive harsh weather
slide26

Defense

  • Defensive adaptations (agressive and passive) -> enhanced survival
  • Camouflage (cryptic coloration)
  • Warning coloration
  • Mullerian mimicry- poisonous or dangerous species having similar patterns of coloration
slide27

Batesian mimicry- nonpoisonous or nondangerous species having similar pattern or color to a poisonous or dangerous unrelated species

slide28

Insect Behavior

  • Social behavior in honeybees
  • Behaviors are genetically determined (instinctual or innate)
  • Division of labor ->complex societies -> interdependence and need for communication
slide29

Hive consists of 3 distinct forms

  • Workers - sterile females; majority of individuals in hive
  • Queen - fertile female; only function is reproduction
  • Drones - male bees; only function is
slide30

Workers

  • Average life span approximately 6 weeks
  • Perform many functions at different times during their lives
  • 1st stage - feed honey and pollen to queen, drones and larvae (nurse bees); secrete royal jelly (high protein diet)
  • 2nd stage - Stop producing royal jelly and begin secreting wax -> build and repair hive, guard hive and fan wings to circulate fresh air in hive
slide31

3rd stage - gather nector and pollen; legs modified with special structures to collect pollen; ovipositor modified for defense (stinger)

slide32

Queen and Drones

  • Queen identical to workers except continuously supplied with royal jelly; Queen secretes "queen factor" which prevents other female larvae from becoming sexually mature
  • Mates only once; sperm stored in seminal receptacle for up to 5 years or more
slide33

Drones (haploid (n) males) develop from unfertilized eggs; sole function to deliver sperm to queen; must be feed by workers

slide34

Communication

  • Pheromones - chemicals released by an animal that affects the behavior or development of other animals of the same species
  • Sounds
  • Tapping, rubbing, or signaling
slide35

Honey Bee communication

  • Round dance - food source near but no indication of exact location
  • Waggle dance- food far from hive, dirction of food indicated by the angle of the straight run and the distance indicated by the duration and the number of waggles