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[virtual] cells PowerPoint Presentation
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[virtual] cells

[virtual] cells

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[virtual] cells

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Presentation Transcript

  1. [virtual] cells

  2. course layout • introduction • molecular biology • biotechnology • bioMEMS • bioinformatics • bio-modeling • cells and e-cells • transcription and regulation • cell communication • neural networks • dna computing • fractals and patterns • the birds and the bees ….. and ants

  3. introduction

  4. size

  5. size

  6. size

  7. cells Humans 60 trillion cells 320 cell types

  8. the cell theory • The Cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living organisms • The activity of an organism is dependent on both the individual and collective activities of its cells • Cell actions are determined and made possible by specific subcellular structures • Cells come from cells

  9. the cellular basis of life • The cell is the unit of life: it contains everything needed to survive. • Complex • carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and traces of others • organized into multiple structures = organelles • each type needed for survival • Many different shapes and sizes • Neurons • Blood cells • ……

  10. neuron

  11. red blood cells

  12. cell components 3 basic parts • Nucleus • Cytoplasm • all cellular contents between plasma membrane and nucleus • organelles = specialized internal structures • Plasma membrane

  13. cell components

  14. cell components • lysosomesforms spindle fibres to separate chromosomes during celldivision • golgi apparatusfinal packaging location for proteins and lipids and distribution • centriolemodifies chemicals to make them functional; secretes chemicals in tiny vesicles; stores chemicals; may produce endoplasmic reticulum • endoplasmic reticulumtransports chemicals between cells and within cells; - provides a large surface area for the organizationof chemical reactions and synthesis http://www.tvdsb.on.ca/westmin/science/sbi3a1/Cells/cells.htm

  15. lipid layer

  16. lipid layer

  17. lipid layer

  18. cytoplasm Organelles to know • Mitochondria • Ribosomes • Rough endoplasmic reticulum = Rough ER • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum = Smooth ER • Golgi apparatus • Lysosomes • Peroxisomes • Nucleus • Nucleoli

  19. nucleus • cell’s control center • usually visible • nuclear envelope • double membrane • nuclear pores in membrane allow passage of substances between cytoplasm and nucleus • contains the hereditary material = DNA • carries instructions for making proteins • determines cell structure, coordinates activities of the cell

  20. nucleus

  21. nucleolus Nucleoli • Darker staining, oval/spherical bodies within the nucleus • Clusters of DNA, RNA, and protein (not membrane-bound) • Site of ribosome assembly

  22. cells

  23. Single cells but can be filamentous Small streamlined genomes No complex organelles Fast cell cycle No membrane defined nucleus No large visible chromosomes Membrane defined nucleus Complex cytoplasmic organelles Slow cell cycle Complex development Large genome with introns Multiple chromosomes prokaryotic vs eukaryotic

  24. prokaryotic cell

  25. prokaryotic cell

  26. eukaryotic cell

  27. eukaryotic cell • Rough endoplasmic reticulum-site of secreted protein synthesis • Smooth ER-site of fatty acid synthesis • Ribosomes-site of protein synthesis • Golgi apparatus- site of modification and sorting of secreted proteins • Lysosomes-recycling of polymers and organelles • Nucleus-double membrane structure confining the chromosomes • Nucleolus-site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomes • Peroxisome-site of fatty acid and amino acid degradation • Flagella/Cilia- involved in motility • Mitochondria-site of oxidative phosphorylation • Chloroplast-site of photosynthesis • Intermediate filaments- involved in cytoskeleton structure

  28. eukaryotic cell

  29. eukaryotic cell

  30. plant vs animal cells • Plant cells have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis • Outermost barrier in plant cells is the cell wall • Outermost barrier in animal cells is the plasma membrane

  31. plant cell 5 µm

  32. plant cell 1 µm

  33. plant cell

  34. chloroplast

  35. chloroplast 20 µm

  36. mitochondria

  37. mitochondria • break large molecules into small molecules by inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond • produces energy

  38. mitochondria

  39. cell evolution

  40. cell evolution

  41. cell evolution

  42. T4 bacteriophage