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CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT. Dr. V. K. SETHI Prof. & Head RGPV Bhopal. WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. PRIORITIES ON ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR: Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology.

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Dr. V. K. SETHI Prof. & Head RGPV Bhopal


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Presentation Transcript
slide2

WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

PRIORITIES ON ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR:

  • Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology.
  • Promote CCT in countries where coal is main stay fuel for Power Generation.
  • Reduce Atmospheric Pollution from Energy Generating Systems.
  • Enhance productivity through Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology.
power scenario in india
POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA

Installed capacity in utilities (March 31, 2002)

        • Thermal 73,274 mw
        • Hydro 25,574 mw
        • Nuclear 2,860 mw
        • Wind 1,427 mw
        • Total 1,03,135 mw
  • Total energy generation - 383 billion kwh
  • Per Capita Energy Consumption -400 kwh
demand projection
DEMAND PROJECTION

YEAR 2012 CAPACITY ADDITION BY SECTORS

  • Central 46,500 MW
  • State & IPP 41,800 MW
  • NCES 10,700 MW
  • Nuclear 6,400 MW
  • Total 105,400 MW

YEAR 2020 MIX OF GENERATION

  • Thermal 326,000MW
  • Renewable & Hydro 104,000 MW
  • Nuclear 20,000 MW
  • Total 450,000 MW
clean coal technologies
CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES
  • Mining Management & Practices (Reduction of Extraneous material)
  • Coal Preparation Process after mining to improve inherent & Extraneous material (washing & beneficiation)
  • Conversion Technologies Supercritical, PFBC and IGCC
  • Post combustion cleaning Particulate and gaseous pollutants removal (Environmental requirement)
slide6

VISION 2020

PROGRAM

Gasification using + fluidized bed, moving bed or Entrained bed Gasifiers

In-combustion Clean-up Fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, PFBC, AFBC)

Post combustion Clean-up-Desulfurization(FGC systems) Supercritical

Pre combustion Clean-up beneficiation/washing

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

Technologies for utilization of Coal for Power Generation with minimal pollutants discharged to the atmosphere (Reduced CO2, Sox, Nox, SPM) at high conversion efficiency……….World Coal Institute.

clean coal technologies1

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are defined as ‘technologies designed to enhance:

Efficiency of conversion

Environmental acceptability of coal extraction, preparation and use.

coal for power generation

COAL FOR POWER GENERATION

China and India are projected to account for30% of the world’s increase in energy consumption between 2000-2020 and 92% of increase in coal use.

The key environmental challenges facing the coal industry are related to :

Coal Mining

Particulate emission

Disturbance land me

Acid rain

Ozone and Waste disposal

india amongst top six emitters of co2

INDIA AMONGST TOP SIX EMITTERS OF CO2

Country Total emission Percentage of

(Million Tonnes of CO2) world emission

USA 5470 24%

China 3121 14%

Russian Federation 1456 6%

Japan 1173 5%

Germany 884 4%

India 881 4%

note green house inventory for india for energy sector million tonnes of co 2

Note : Green House inventory for India for Energy Sector (Million Tonnes of CO2)

Energy Sector CO2 CO2 equivalent

(CO2+CH4+NOx)

Total Emission 508 565

(58% of total) (64% of total)

Source : IAE : 1999

zero emission technology zet

Zero Emission Technology (ZET)

This technology combines and forms a part of :

Clean Coal Technologies

Solid to liquid fuel technology

GHG mitigation technology

Clean Development Mechanism for power sector

Non-CFC Refrigerant and Non-CFC Aerosol Propellant Technology

Clean Aviation Fuel or ATF for aircraft

Substitute LPG for domestic use.

measures to achieve sustainable development

Measures to achieve Sustainable Development

Promoting CCTs, including carbon sequestration is essential to a balanced cost effective climate change response

Developing countries where coal combustion efficiencies are low CCT promotion a need of the day.

slide15

o

Super Critical PC Power Plant (15 C Amb.)

60

Super Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)

o

IGCC (15 C Amb)

55

IGCC (Indian Condition)

Sub Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)

50

o

1500 C

o

1300 C

o

623 C

Net Thermal Efficiency (%)

o

600 C

45

o

566 C

40

Ceramic gas

turbine

o

1184 C

o

650 C

35

o

540 C

30

1995

2000

2005

2010

1990

Year of commercial use

EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT FORECAST

CONVENTIONAL Vs IGCC ( Courtesy BHEL)

slide16

POLLUTANT GENERATION FROM PC PLANTS

No Change Scenario

Specific Coal Consumption

=0.75 KG/KWH

Coal

Ash : 43%

Sulphur : 0.6%

Ideal Scenario

Specific Coal Consumption

=0.35 KG/KWH

Coal

Ash : 15%

Sulphur : 3%

1997

2002

1997

2002

1997

2002

1997

2002

1997

2002

1997

2002

slide17

RELATIVE EMMISSION

PC

PC+FGD

PFBC

IGCC

super critical units
SUPER CRITICAL UNITS
  • Standardized Unit Size 660 MW, 246 ata, 537 oC
  • Station Size 2x660 MW (Minimum)
  • Common Off site facility
  • FW Temperature 270 oC – 275 oC with 6 Heaters.

Total Capacity Planned 14,560 MW *

Number of Units 22 Units

*Includes 6x720 MW and 2x500 MW Imported sets.

main advantages of super critical steam cycle
Main advantages of Super-Critical Steam Cycle
  • Reduced fuel cost due to improved thermal efficiency
  • Reduction of CO2 emissions by 15% per unit of Power generated compared to sub-critical
  • Very good part load efficiencies
  • Plant costs are comparable with sub-critical units
current state of art
Current State-of-Art

Super-critical Steam Power Generation Plants

Pressure - 300 bar

Temperature - 600oC

Efficiency - 45% (LHV Basis)

Nickel based alloys allows up 650oC

By the year 2005 - 620 oC

By the year 2020 - 650-700 oC

Cycle Efficiency - 50-55%

r d in supercritical technology

R&D IN SUPERCRITICAL TECHNOLOGY

Main Thrust Areas :

Materials & Metallurgy for components of boiler & turbine subjected to high temperature and high pressure.

Supercritical cycle optimization -incremental heat rate improvement

Retrofit of supercritical boiler to subcritical PC boiler

Fluidized bed supercritical steam cycles

Once through HRSGs with supercritical parameters

Multi-reheat supercritical boilers with double/triple reheater.

super critical scenario
SUPER CRITICAL SCENARIO

EXPECTED BENEFITS:

  • Coal Saving 1,565,200 Tonnes
  • Co2 Emission Reduction 1,909,544 ”
  • SO2 Emission Reduction 11,648 ”
  • Ash Reduction 661,752 ”
coal based combined cycle plant
COAL BASED COMBINED CYCLE PLANT

Routes

Combustion Gasification

coal based combined cycle power generation
COAL BASEDCOMBINED CYCLE POWER GENERATION
  • Offers Plant efficiency over 44% with advanced GT
  • Has Lower emission of gaseous and solid pollutants
  • Accept Inferior and varying quality of coals
  • Lower water requirement
  • Capability of phased construction and retrofitting
slide25
IGCC TECHNOLOGY ...
  • Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of utilization of coal, while combined cycle power generation gives the highest efficiency.
  • Integration of these two technologies in IGCC power generation offers the benefits of very low emissions and efficiencies of the order of 44-48%.
  • The comparative indices show that in case of IGCC, emission of particulate, NOx and SOx are:

7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the corresponding emissions from PC plant.

slide26
IGCC ...
  • Environmental performance of IGCC plants far exceeds that of conventional and even supercritical plants.
  • Three major areas of technology that will contribute to improvements in IGCC are :
      • hot gas de-sulfurisation
      • hot gas particulate removal
      • advanced turbine systems
developmental goals for igcc
DEVELOPMENTAL GOALS FOR IGCC
  • To utilize India’s low grade coal for power generation with improved plant efficiency.
  • To introduce coal gas in Natural Gas based Combined Cycle Plants in a phased manner.
  • To increase power generation capacity at the level of present emission.
  • To develop state of Art Technology for Indigenous and Export Markets.
igcc development program in india
IGCC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN INDIA

MAJOR MILE STONES:

  • Choice of gasification for high ash coals by BHEL
  • 6.2 MW IGCC demonstration plant established by BHEL both with Moving Bed and Fluidized Bed.
  • Coal Characterization by BHEL & IICT for gasification application.
  • Intensive data generated by IICT on oxygen-steam gasification in their Moving Bed gasifier.
  • Task force CEA, CSIR, NTPC & BHEL constituted to assess technological maturity & Financial requirement for a green field IGCC plant of 100 MW capacity at Dadri (NTPC).
  • BHEL, CSIR & NTPC prepared proposal for setting up of this 100 MW IGCC demonstration plant.
slide30

Circulating fluidized Bed Combustion

  • Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) technology has selectively been applied in India for firing high sulphur refinery residues, lignite, etc.

CFBC Technology is superior to PC Power Plant Technology:

    • Lower NOx formation and the ability to capture SO2 with limestone injection the furnace.
slide31

Circulating fluidized Bed Combustion

  • Good combustion efficiencies comparable to PC Power Plants.
  • The heat transfer coefficient of the CFB furnace is nearly double that of PC which makes the furnace compact.
  • Fuel Flexibility: The CFB can handle a wide range of fuels such as inferior coal, washery rejects, lignite, anthracite, petroleum coke and agricultural waste with lower heating.
slide32

Steam to Super Heater

Cyclone

Back-Pass

Coal Feed

Hopper

Furnace

ESP

External

Heat-Exchanger

Ash Cooler

HP Air

Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler

cfbc vs other clean coal technologies

ITEM

CFBC

PF+FGD/SCR

IGCC

Cycle Eff. %

34.8

36.7

41-42

Relative Capital Cost/kW

1.0

1.03-1.19

1.15-1.42

Relative O&M Cost/kW

1.0

1.49

0.8-0.98

CFBC Vs Other Clean Coal Technologies

At present pulverized fuel firing with FGD are less costly than prevailing IGCC technology. However, firing in CFB Boiler is still more economical when using high sulfur lignite and low-grade coals and rejects.

slide34
Renovation & Modernization (R&M) and Life Extension (LE) of old power plants is a cost-effective option as compared to adding up green field plant capacities.
  • Growing environmental regulations would force many utilities within the country to go for revamping these polluting old power plants using environmentally benign CFBC technology.
slide35

SUMMERY

  • Sustainable Power Development calls for adoption of Clean Coal Technologies like Supercritical cycles, IGCC and FBC technologies
  • Supercritical Power technologies may selectively be used for Pit Head power generation using washed coal
slide36

SUMMERY

  • IGCC can revolutionize the power generation scenario in India, once the commercial viability of technology with high ash coals is established at the proposed 100 MW plant.
  • The success of the project will largely depend on maturity of Fluidized bed gasification technology for high ash Indian Coals.
  • CFBC technologies are particularly useful for Boiler Emission reduction through revamping of old polluting plants.