CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT. Dr. V. K. SETHI Prof. & Head RGPV Bhopal. WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. PRIORITIES ON ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR: Increased use of Advanced Fossil Fuel Technology.
Dr. V. K. SETHI
Prof. & Head
PRIORITIES ON ENERGY GENERATION SECTOR:
Installed capacity in utilities (March 31, 2002)
YEAR 2012 CAPACITY ADDITION BY SECTORS
YEAR 2020 MIX OF GENERATION
Gasification using + fluidized bed, moving bed or Entrained bed Gasifiers
In-combustion Clean-up Fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, PFBC, AFBC)
Post combustion Clean-up-Desulfurization(FGC systems) Supercritical
Pre combustion Clean-up beneficiation/washing
CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES
Technologies for utilization of Coal for Power Generation with minimal pollutants discharged to the atmosphere (Reduced CO2, Sox, Nox, SPM) at high conversion efficiency……….World Coal Institute.
Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are defined as ‘technologies designed to enhance:
Efficiency of conversion
Environmental acceptability of coal extraction, preparation and use.
China and India are projected to account for30% of the world’s increase in energy consumption between 2000-2020 and 92% of increase in coal use.
The key environmental challenges facing the coal industry are related to :
Disturbance land me
Ozone and Waste disposal
Country Total emission Percentage of
(Million Tonnes of CO2) world emission
USA 5470 24%
China 3121 14%
Russian Federation 1456 6%
Japan 1173 5%
Germany 884 4%
India 881 4%
Energy Sector CO2 CO2 equivalent
Total Emission 508 565
(58% of total) (64% of total)
Source : IAE : 1999
This technology combines and forms a part of :
Clean Coal Technologies
Solid to liquid fuel technology
GHG mitigation technology
Clean Development Mechanism for power sector
Non-CFC Refrigerant and Non-CFC Aerosol Propellant Technology
Clean Aviation Fuel or ATF for aircraft
Substitute LPG for domestic use.
Promoting CCTs, including carbon sequestration is essential to a balanced cost effective climate change response
Developing countries where coal combustion efficiencies are low CCT promotion a need of the day.
Super Critical PC Power Plant (15 C Amb.)
Super Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)
IGCC (15 C Amb)
IGCC (Indian Condition)
Sub Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition)
Net Thermal Efficiency (%)
Year of commercial use
EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT FORECAST
CONVENTIONAL Vs IGCC ( Courtesy BHEL)
No Change Scenario
Specific Coal Consumption
Ash : 43%
Sulphur : 0.6%
Specific Coal Consumption
Ash : 15%
Sulphur : 3%
Total Capacity Planned 14,560 MW *
Number of Units 22 Units
*Includes 6x720 MW and 2x500 MW Imported sets.
Super-critical Steam Power Generation Plants
Pressure - 300 bar
Temperature - 600oC
Efficiency - 45% (LHV Basis)
Nickel based alloys allows up 650oC
By the year 2005 - 620 oC
By the year 2020 - 650-700 oC
Cycle Efficiency - 50-55%
Main Thrust Areas :
Materials & Metallurgy for components of boiler & turbine subjected to high temperature and high pressure.
Supercritical cycle optimization -incremental heat rate improvement
Retrofit of supercritical boiler to subcritical PC boiler
Fluidized bed supercritical steam cycles
Once through HRSGs with supercritical parameters
Multi-reheat supercritical boilers with double/triple reheater.
7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the corresponding emissions from PC plant.
MAJOR MILE STONES:
CFBC Technology is superior to PC Power Plant Technology:
Circulating Fluidised Bed Boiler
Cycle Eff. %
Relative Capital Cost/kW
Relative O&M Cost/kW
At present pulverized fuel firing with FGD are less costly than prevailing IGCC technology. However, firing in CFB Boiler is still more economical when using high sulfur lignite and low-grade coals and rejects.