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Moving Westward: 1850-1890. Libertyville HS. Westward Movement. By 1850s frontier had moved to 100 th Meridian Area beyond = “Great American Desert” North = Canada West = Great Plains & Rocky Mountains South = Texas Barriers to settlement Extremes of weather

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westward movement
Westward Movement
  • By 1850s frontier had moved to 100th Meridian
  • Area beyond = “Great American Desert”
    • North = Canada
    • West = Great Plains & Rocky Mountains
    • South = Texas
  • Barriers to settlement
    • Extremes of weather
    • Lack of trees (fuel, construction, food)
    • Native Americans
the indian barrier
The Indian Barrier
  • N.A. were masters of their environment
  • Indian advantages
    • Horsemanship
    • Weapons
    • Knowledge of their terrain
  • White disadvantages
    • Unknown environment
    • Slow loading weapons
changing circumstances
Changing Circumstances
  • Use of the revolver
  • Telegraph (“singing wires”)
  • Introduction of alcohol
  • Diseases
  • Disappearance of buffalo
  • Introduction of the railroad
    • Ex – Union & Central Pacific
    • “Plenty wagon, no horse”
the transcontinental railroad
The Transcontinental Railroad
  • Transcontinental Railroad – why?
    • Quick transport across country for goods, people
    • Congress: land grants to RR companies, as incentive to build
    • Trunk line + subsidiary lines
  • Effects
    • Open up interior to settlement
    • Hastened defeat of Indians
    • Buffalo slaughter
    • Political development of W states
america s second civil war 1865 1886
“America’s Second Civil War”1865-1886
  • Combat between encroaching whites, Plains Indians
  • Dilemma: what to do with defeated Indians? Americanize them!
highlights of second civil war
Highlights of “Second Civil War”
  • 1876 Little Big Horn

(Custer’s “Last Stand”)

  • 1877 Crazy Horse surrendered
  • 1877 Chief Joseph & Nez Perce fled to Canada
  • 1882 Oklahoma becomes “Indian Territory”
  • 1883 Sundance prohibited by the Secretary of Interior
  • 1886 Geronimo surrendered

Custer

Crazy Horse

Chief Joseph

Geronimo

assimilation of native americans
Assimilation of Native Americans
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs
    • Manage assimilation of Native Americans into mainstream culture
  • Confined Indians to reservations
    • Teach white culture
    • Christianize
    • Break up tribes
    • Disperse family units
    • Force individual property ownership
political timeline of assimilation
Political Timeline of Assimilation
  • 1887 Dawes Act (Indian Homestead Act)
    • 160 acres from government
  • Late 1880s, 90s
    • Return of Sitting Bull
    • Popularity of Ghost Dance
  • 1889 Ghost Dance reached Pine Ridge Res
  • 1890 Wounded Knee (massacre of Indians)
  • 1904 Burke Act (Indian homesteads)
    • 640 acres & potential citizenship

Sitting Bull

the cattle kingdom 1865 85
The Cattle Kingdom (1865-85)
  • “Open Range”
    • Cattle business – McCoy linked to Chicago meat packing business
    • Texas ‘longhorns’
    • “Long drive” to railheads
  • Railheads & “cattle towns”
    • Trails = Goodnight-loving, Western Chisholm, Shawnee
    • Cattle towns = Wichita, Dodge City, Abilene

Joseph McCoy

cattle kingdom
Cattle Kingdom
  • Advances of Cattle Kingdom
    • Joseph Glidden
      • Barbed wire (“devil’s hat band”)
    • Ned Buntline
      • Dime novels (paperbacks)
    • John Deere
      • Steel edged plow

Joseph Glidden

John Deere

cattle kingdom end of an era
Cattle Kingdom: End of an Era
  • Over production
  • Drought (1886) & blizzards (1886-87) ended Cattle Kingdom
  • Sod busters & “range wars”
  • Result
    • Ranches and fences
    • Big business
miner s frontier
Miner’s Frontier
  • There were approximately two dozen major “mining rushes” (mining rush = discovery of gold or silver)
    • 1849 – Sacramento, CA
    • 1859 – Colorado @ Pike’s Peak
    • 1859 – Nevada (Comstock Lode - silver)
    • 1874 – Black Hills, SD (Sioux Res, sacred land – Army sent in to protect miners) (Homestake Mine – gold)

Pike’s

Peak

Mining

Silver mine

miner s frontier black hills war
Miner’s Frontier: Black Hills War
  • George Custer & the 7th Cavalry
  • Crazy Horse and the Sioux
  • “Custer’s Last Stand”
    • Custer, 200 troopers march 30+ miles
    • Attack 2-3000 Sioux warriors!
    • Cavalry killed, to the man
    • Only survivor…
mining town life
Mining Town Life
  • Mining towns in territories = little law / justice
  • New vocabulary
    • “vigilantes”
    • “posse”
    • “suspended sentence”
    • “necktie parties”
    • “Winchester litigation”
  • End of Boom times
    • Mining becomes just another big business
end of the frontier farmers
End of the Frontier: Farmers
  • Initial settlement of West
    • Oregon Fever, 1840s
    • CA Gold Rush, 1849
  • Post CW settlement of “American Desert”
    • Dislocation due to Civil War
    • Homestead Act of 1862
      • 160 acres free, if developed (later increased to 640 acres)
      • 1.6 million “freeholds” est.
      • 270 million acres, or @ 10% of all US land
    • Free RR transport to W
barriers to farmers in west
Barriers to Farmers in West

Barrier

Solution

  • Housing
  • Fuel
  • Plowing
  • Fencing
  • Water
  • “Sod busting”
  • “Buffalo chips”
  • Deere plow
  • Barbed wire
  • Windmills to pump well water to irrigate
settlement of west
Settlement of West
  • Last Land Rush: Oklahoma, 1889 (“89ers”)
    • “Sooners” = those who entered early
    • Boomers = those who legally entered – cannon boom
  • 1890 census: officially ended the “frontier” as a part of USA