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## Momentum

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**Which object has the greatest momentum?**(A) a 5.00-kg mass moving at 10.0 m/s (B) a 10.0-kg mass moving at 1.00 m/s (C) a 15.0-kg mass moving at 10.0 m/s (D) a 20.0-kg mass moving at 1.00 m/s**What is the speed of a 1.0×103-kg car that has a momentum**of 2.0×104 kg•m/ s east? (A) 5.0 × 10–2 m/s (B) 2.0 × 101 m/s (C) 1.0 × 104 m/s (D) 2.0 × 107 m/s**A 60-kg rollerskater exerts a 10-N force on a 30-kg**rollerskater for 0.20 second. What is the magnitude of the impulse applied to the 30-kg rollerskater? (A) 50 N•s (B) 2.0 N•s (C) 6.0 N•s (D) 12 N•s**A 0.149-kilogram baseball, initially moving at 15 meters per**second, is brought to rest in 0.040 second by a baseball glove on a catcher’s hand. The magnitude of the average force exerted on the ball by the glove is (A) 2.2 N (B) 2.9 N (C) 17 N (D) 56 N**At the circus, a 100-kilogram clown is fired at 15 meters**per second from a 500-kilogram cannon. What is the recoil speed of the cannon? (A) 75 m/s (B) 15 m/s (C) 3.0 m/s (D) 5.0 m/s**Ball A of mass 5.0 kg moving at 20 m/s collides with ball B**of unknown mass moving at 10 m/s in the same direction. After the collision, ball A moves at 10 m/s and ball B at 15 m/s, both still in the same direction. What is the mass of ball B? (A) 6.0 kg (B) 2.0 kg (C) 10. kg (D) 12 kg**A 3.0-kg steel block is at rest on a friction-less**horizontal surface. A 1.0-kg lump of clay is propelled horizontally at 6.0 m/s toward the block. Upon collision, the clay and steel block stick together and move to the right with a speed of (A) 1.5 m/s (B) 3.0 m/s (C) 6.0 m/s (D) 2.0 m/s**A 3.1-kilogram gun initially at rest is free to move. When a**0.015-kilogram bullet leaves the gun with a speed of 500 m/s, what is the speed of the gun? (A) 0.0 m/s (B) 2.4 m/s (C) 7.5 m/s (D) 500 m/s**At the circus, a 100-kg clown is fired at 15 m/s from a**500-kg cannon. What is the recoil speed of the cannon? (A) 75 m/s (B) 3.0 m/s (C) 15 m/s (D) 5.0 m/s**LCHS**Dr.E ENERGY**An egg is dropped from a third-story window. The distance**the egg falls from the window to the ground is closest to (A) 100 m (B) 101 m (C) 102 m (D) 103 m**Which body is in equilibrium?**(A) a satellite orbiting Earth in a circular orbit (B) a ball falling freely toward the surface of Earth (C) a car moving with a constant speed along a straight, level road (D) a projectile at the highest point in its trajectory**A student does 60 joules of work pushing a 3.0-kilogram box**up the full length of a ramp that is 5.0 meters long. What is the magnitude of the force applied to the box to do this work? (A) 20 N (B) 15 N (C) 12 N (D) 4.0 N**Which combination of fundamental units can be used to**express energy? (A) kg•m/s (B) kg•m2/s (C) kg•m/s2 (D) kg•m2/s2**The diagram shows points A, B, and C at or near Earth’s**surface. As a mass is moved from A to B, 100 joules of work are done against gravity. What is the amount of work done against gravity as an identical mass is moved from A to C? (A) 100 J (B) 173 J (C) 200 J (D) 273 J**A 15.0-kilogram mass is moving at 7.50 meters per second on**a horizontal, frictionless surface. What is the total work that must be done on the mass to increase its speed to 11.5 meters per second? (A) 120 J (B) 422 J (C) 570 J (D) 992 J**A 75-kilogram bicyclist coasts down a hill at a constant**speed of 12 meters per second. What is the kinetic energy of the bicyclist? (A) 4.5 × 102 J (B) 9.0 × 102 J (C) 5.4 × 103 J (D) 1.1 × 104 J**If the speed of a car is doubled, the kinetic energy of the**car is (A) quadrupled (B) quartered (C) doubled (D) halved**The gravitational potential energy, with respect to Earth,**that is possessed by an object is dependent on the object’s (A) acceleration (B) momentum (C) position (D) speed**The diagram represents a 155-N box on a ramp. Applied force**F causes the box to slide from point A to point B. What is the total amount of gravitational potential energy gained by the box? (A) 28.4 J (B) 279 J (C) 868 J (D) 2740 J**A 60-kg student climbs a ladder a vertical distance of 4.0**meters in 8.0 seconds. Approximately how much total work is done against gravity by the student during the climb? (A) 2.4 × 103 J (B) 2.9 × 102 J (C) 2.4 × 102 J (D) 3.0 × 101 J**A boat weighing 9.0 × 102 Newtons requires a horizontal**force of 6.0 × 102 Newtons to move it across the water at 1.5 × 101 meters per second. The boat’s engine must provide energy at the rate of (A) 2.5 × 10–2 J (B) 4.0 × 101 W (C) 7.5 × 103 J (D) 9.0 × 103 W**A 70-kg cyclist develops 210 Watts of power while pedaling**at a constant velocity of 7.0 m/s east. What average force is exerted eastward on the bicycle to maintain this constant speed? (A) 490 N (B) 30 N (C) 3.0 N (D) 0 N**A 1-kilogram rock is dropped from a cliff 90 meters high.**After falling 20 meters, the kinetic energy of the rock is approximately (A) 20 J (B) 200 J (C) 700 J (D) 900 J**A ball is dropped from the top of a cliff. Which graph best**represents the relationship between the ball’s total energy and elapsed time as the ball falls to the ground? [Neglect friction.]**A ball attached to**a string is moved at constant speed in a horizontal circular path. A target is located near the path of the ball as shown in the diagram. At which point along the ball’s path should the string be released, if the ball is to hit the target? A) A B) B C) C D) D**An artificial satellite makes 4 complete revolutions about**the Earth in 8 hours. The period of revolution of the satellite is A) ½ hour B) 2 hours C) 8 hours D) 32 hours**The diagram below shows the elliptical orbit of a comet**around the Sun. The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the comet is greatest at point A) A B) B C) C D) D**A car moves with a**constant speed in a clockwise direction around a circular path of radius r, as represented in the diagram above. When the car is in the position shown, its acceleration is directed toward the A) north B) west C) south D) east**A mass of 10 kilograms is revolving at a linear speed of 5**meters per second in a circle with a radius of 10 meters. The centripetal force acting on the mass is A) 5 N C) 20 N B) 10 N D) 25 N**As the distance between two objects increases, the**gravitational force of attraction between them will A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same**The diagram below**Shows four different locations of a satellite in its elliptical orbit about Earth. At which location is the magnitude of the satellite’s velocity greatest? • A B) B C) C D) D**The diagram below shows**the movement of a planet around the Sun. Area 1 equals area 2. Compared to the time the planet takes to move from C to D, the time it takes to move from A to B is A) less B) greater C) the same**The shapes of the paths of the planets about the Sun are all**A) circles with the Sun at the center B) circles with the Sun off center C) ellipses with the Sun at the center D) ellipses with the Sun at one focus**The comet Hyakutake, seen in the Earth's sky in 1996, will**take more than 10,000 years to complete its orbit. Which object is at a focus of the comet's orbit? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Jupiter**An astronaut weighs 8.00 × 102 Newton’ on the surface of**Earth. What is the weight of the astronaut 6.37 × 106 meters above the surface of Earth (2 radii total)? A) 0.00 N B) 2.00 × 102 N C) 1.60 × 103 N D) 3.20 × 103 N**Absolute zero is best described as the temperature at which**A. water freezes at standard pressure B. water is at its triple point C. the molecules of a substance have maximum kinetic energy D. the molecules of a substance have minimum kinetic energy